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แหล่งที่มา: https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/th.html

Map of Thailand

 



Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Thailand Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II, Thailand became a US ally following the conflict. Thailand is currently facing separatist violence in its southern ethnic Malay-Muslim provinces.
   Geography    Thailand Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
15 00 N, 100 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 514,000 sq km
land: 511,770 sq km
water: 2,230 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4,863 km
border countries: Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
3,219 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,576 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 27.54%
permanent crops: 6.93%
other: 65.53% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
49,860 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore
   People    Thailand Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
64,631,595
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 22% (male 7,284,068/female 6,958,632)
15-64 years: 70% (male 22,331,312/female 22,880,588)
65 years and over: 8% (male 2,355,190/female 2,821,805) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 31.9 years
male: 31.1 years
female: 32.8 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.68% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.87 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.04 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 19.49 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.77 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 72.25 years
male: 69.95 years
female: 74.68 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.64 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.5% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
570,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
58,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, and plague are high risks in some locations
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: leptospirosis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified among birds in this country or surrounding region; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2007)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Thai (singular and plural)
adjective: Thai
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Buddhist 94.6%, Muslim 4.6%, Christian 0.7%, other 0.1% (2000 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Thai, English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialects
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 94.9%
female: 90.5% (2002)
   Government    Thailand Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
conventional short form: Thailand
local long form: Ratcha Anachak Thai
local short form: Prathet Thai
former: Siam
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
name: Bangkok
geographic coordinates: 13 45 N, 100 31 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
76 provinces (changwat, singular and plural); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Birthday of King PHUMIPHON, 5 December (1927)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
constitution signed by King PHUMIPHON on 11 October 1997; abrogated on 19 September 2006 after coup; interim constitution promulgated on 1 October 2006; coup leaders have promised new constitution by mid 2007
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (since 9 June 1946)
head of government: Interim Prime Minister SURAYUT Chulanon (since 1 October 2006); Interim Deputy Prime Ministers KHOSIT Panpiemras (since 9 October 2006); PRIDIYATHORN Devakula (since 9 October 2006)
note: Prime Minister THAKSIN Chinnawat was overthrown on 19 September 2006 in a coup led by General SONTHI Boonyaratglin
cabinet: Council of Ministers
note: there is also a Privy Council
elections: none; monarch is hereditary; according to 1997 constitution, prime minister was designated from among members of House of Representatives; following national elections for House of Representatives, leader of party that could organize a majority coalition usually was appointed prime minister by king
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral National Assembly or Rathasapha consisted of the Senate or Wuthisapha (200 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Sapha Phuthaen Ratsadon (500 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); after coup in September 2006, coup leaders appointed an interim National Assembly with 250 members to act as Senate and House of Representatives
elections: Senate - last held 19 April 2006; House of Representatives - last valid election held 6 February 2005; elections held on 2 April 2006 invalidated by court ruling; coup leaders scheduled next general election by about October 2007
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; House of Representatives - (2005 election) percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - TRT 376, DP 97, TNP 25, PP 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Sandika (judges appointed by the monarch)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democrat Party or DP (Prachathipat Party) [ABHISIT Wetchachiwa]; People's Party or PP (Mahachon Party) [ANEK Laothamatas]; Thai Nation Party or TNP (Chat Thai Party) [BARNHARN SILPA-ARCHA]; Thai Rak Thai Party or TRT [CHATURON Chaisang]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), ONUB, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador VIRASAK Futrakul
chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 401, Washington, DC 20007-3681
telephone: [1] (202) 944-3600
FAX: [1] (202) 944-3611
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph L. BOYCE
embassy: 120-122 Wireless Road, Bangkok 10330
mailing address: APO AP 96546
telephone: [66] (2) 205-4000
FAX: [66] (2) 254-2990, 205-4131
consulate(s) general: Chiang Mai
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red
   Economy    Thailand Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
With a well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, and pro-investment policies, Thailand appears to have fully recovered from the 1997-98 Asian Financial Crisis. The country was one of East Asia's best performers in 2002-04. Boosted by increased consumption and strong export growth, the Thai economy grew 6.9% in 2003 and 6.1% in 2004 despite a sluggish global economy. Bangkok has pursued preferential trade agreements with a variety of partners in an effort to boost exports and to maintain high growth. In late December 2004, a major tsunami took 8,500 lives in Thailand and caused massive destruction of property in the southern provinces of Krabi, Phangnga, and Phuket. In 2006, investment stagnated as investors, spooked by the Thaksin administration's political problems, stayed on the sidelines. The military coup in September brought in a new economic team, led by the former central bank governor. In December, the Thai Board of Investment reported the value of investment applications from January to November had declined by 27% year-on-year. On the positive side, exports have performed at record levels, rising nearly 17% in 2006. Export-oriented manufacturing - in particular automobile production - and farm output are driving these gains.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$585.9 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$196.6 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.4% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$9,100 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 10%
industry: 44.9%
services: 45.2% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
36.41 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 49%
industry: 14%
services: 37% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.1% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
10% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
51.1 (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.1% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
28.7% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $40.31 billion
expenditures: $40.34 billion; including capital expenditures of $5 billion (2006 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
43.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, cassava (tapioca), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans
Industries:

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