We have seen production systems like F:X-->Y, represented by a set of 'IF [input x,...] THEN [output y,...]' rules or a certain f(x)-->y function. Let pretend now that we live in a real world where we have many different production systems running in (roughly) the same place at (roughly) the same time. All systems work to satisfy their own (self) interest. They make sure they get their input even when they have to buy, beg, steal or borrow in order to produce their expected output (which may be a set of several changes) in this real world environment. By being in the real world, somehow these systems inter-depend on each other. They interact collaboratively if there are certain mutual benefits to them. They may avoid interactions with certain other systems to reduce risk or complexity or time or some resources. They may interact competitively in legal manners or otherwise. They may apparently obey certain real world rules at certain times but they may bleach these rules when no one is looking. They may form a collaborative group (or a cartel) to maximize their benefits. They may leave their group(s) at any time when the benefits are no longer worth their while (investment costs).
We may be a tad cynical to include systems of predators and preys. For examples corrupt officials and businessmen; middlemen and farmers; 'queue' (setters) and workers;... We can see some preys' problems (some are yet to reveal). In our righteous and kind ways, we would learn and solve some preys' problems and help preys to flourish. But, helping preys makes predators prosper too. [By analogy, helping the poor makes the rich wealthier.]
<NB> Taxonomy Tax*on"o*my (t[a^]ks*[o^]n"[-o]*m[y^]), n. [Gr. ta`xis an arrangement, order + no`mos a law.]
1. That division of the natural sciences which treats of the classification of animals and plants, primarily by consideration of their natural relationships with respect to their structure or genetic origin; the laws or principles of classification; systematics. [1913 Webster]
2. A systematic arrangement of objects or concepts showing the relations between them, especially one including a hierarchical arrangement of types in which categories of objects are classified as subtypes of more abstract categories, starting from one or a small number of top categories, and descending to more specific types through an arbitrary number of levels. An ontology usually contains a taxonomy as one of the important principles of organization. [1913 Webster]
taxonomy N. วิทยาศาสตร์หรือเทคนิคเกี่ยวกับการแบ่งประเภท relate:[การจัดแบ่งสิ่งมีชีวิตออกเป็นกลุ่มต่างๆ] syn:[classification; nomenclature] [Lexitron2]
<NB> Complex Com"plex (k[o^]m"pl[e^]ks), a. [L. complexus, p. p. of complecti to entwine around, comprise; com- + plectere to twist, akin to plicare to fold. See Plait, n.]
1. Composed of two or more parts; composite; not simple; as, a complex being; a complex idea.[1913 Webster]
Ideas thus made up of several simple ones put together, I call complex; such as beauty, gratitude, a man, an army, the universe. --Locke. [1913 Webster]
2. Involving many parts; complicated; intricate. [1913 Webster] Complex fraction. Fraction.
Complex number in the theory of numbers, an expression of the form a + b[root]-1, when a and b are ordinary integers. Syn: See Intricate. [1913 Webster]
Complex Com"plex, n. [L. complexus] Assemblage of related things; collection; complication. [1913 Webster]
This parable of the wedding supper comprehends in it the whole complex of all the blessings and privileges exhibited by the gospel. --South. [1913 Webster]
Complex of lines all the possible straight lines in space being considered, the entire system of lines which satisfy a single relation constitute a complex; as, all the lines which meet a given curve make up a complex.
The lines which satisfy two relations constitute a congruency of lines; as, the entire system of lines, each one of which meets two given surfaces, is a congruency. [1913 Webster]
complex N. ความคิดหรือกิจกรรมที่สัมพันธ์กัน ADJ. ซับซ้อน syn:[complicated; involved] ant:[simple] ADJ. ที่ประกอบด้วยสองส่วนขึ้นไป [Lexitron2]
<NB> Interaction In`ter*ac"tion, n.
1. Intermediate action. [1913 Webster]
2. Mutual or reciprocal action or influence; as, the interaction of the heart and lungs on each other. [1913 Webster]
3. Hence: (Physics) The effect, such as exertion of a force, that one object exerts on another, especially the capture or emission of a particle.
4. Communication between people, or the actions of people that affect others.
interaction N. ปฏิกิริยา relate:[การมีปฏิสัมพันธ์, การสื่อสารระหว่างกัน, การทำงานร่วมกัน] syn:[collaboration; interplay; synergy] [Lexitron2]
<NB> Cooperation is a particular subset of Interaction. Before we can work together we have to interact with each other ;) .
This challenge is a couple geography trick questions (asked by a 10 years old in Mid-Northern Thailand)
เราอยู่ที่ไหน ถ้าอยู่เหนือ ...สวรรค์ แต่ใต้ ...โลก
ตะพานอะไร อยู่ระหว่าง ...โลก และ ...สวรรค์