2021-04-07 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด – A – Adding ending

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2021-04-07

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด – A – Adding ending

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Common Errors In English Usage DictionaryAdding ending

Adding ending

Usually endings (suffixes) can be added to base words

withoutany complications.

You just add them and that is that!

e.g.    iron + ing = ironing

         steam + er = steamer

         list + less = listless

However, there are four groups of words which need especial care.

Fortunately, there are some straightforward rules

which save your learningthousands of words individually.

(1) The 1-1-1 rule

         This rule applies to:

         wordsof ONE syllable

         ending with ONE consonant

         precededby ONE vowel

         e.g. drop, flat, sun, win.

          When you add an ending

          beginning with a consonant to a 1-1-1 word,

          there is no change to the base word:

          drop + let = droplet

          flat + ly = flatly

          win + some = winsome

          When you add an ending

          beginning with a vowel to a 1-1-1 word,

          you double the final letter of the base word:

          drop + ed = dropped

          flat + est = flattest

          win + ing = winning

          sun + *y = sunny

          *y counts as a vowel when it sounds like i or e.

See VOWELS.

          Treat qu as one letter:

          quit + ing = quitting

          quip + ed = quipped

          Don’t double final w and x.

          They would look very odd and so we have correctly:

          tax + ing = taxing

          paw + ed = pawed

(2)     The magic -e rule

          This rule applies to all words ending with a silent -e.

          e.g.hope, care, achieve, sincere, separate.

          When you add an ending

          beginning with a consonant,

          keep the -e:

          hope + ful = hopeful

          care + less = careless

          sincere + ly = sincerely

          separate + ly = separately

          achieve + ment = achievement

          When you add an ending

          beginning with a vowel,

          drop the -e:

          hope + ing = hoping

          care + er = carer

          sincere + ity = sincerity

          separate + ion = separation

          achieve + ed = achieved

          Do, however, keep the -e in

          words like singeing (different from singing)

          and dyeing (different from dying)

          and whenever you need to keep the identity

          of the base word clear (e.g. shoeing, canoeing).

          Doremember to keep the -e with soft c and soft g words.

          It’s the e that keeps them soft (courageous, traceable).

(See SOFT C AND SOFT G.)

          Don’tkeep the -e with these eight exceptions to the rule:

          truly, duly, ninth, argument, wholly, awful, whilst, wisdom.

(3)     -y rule

         This rule applies to all words ending in -y.          

          Look at the letter before the -y in the base word.

          It doesn’t matter at all

          what kind of ending you are adding.

          When you add an ending

          to a word ending in a vowel + y,

          keep the y:

          portray + ed        = portrayed

          employ + ment   = employment

          When you add an ending

          to a word ending in a consonant + y,

          change the y to i:

          try +al = trial

          empty + er = emptier

          pity + less = pitiless

          lazy + ness = laziness

          Do keep the y when adding -ing.

          Two i’s together would look very odd,

          despite our two words ski-ing and taxi-ing.

          try + ing               = trying

          empty + ing        = emptying

          Don’t apply the rule in these fourteen cases:

          daily, gaily, gaiety, laid, paid, said, slain,

          babyhood, shyly, shyness, dryness, slyness, wryly, wryness. 

(4)     The 2-1-1 rule

         This rule applies to:

          words of              TWO syllables

          ending with         ONE consonant

          preceded by        ONE vowel.

          With this rule, it all depends on

          which syllable of the word is stressed.

          The 2-1-1 words below are

          stressed on the first syllable,

          and both vowel and consonant endings are added

          without any complications:

          gossip                  gossiping

          target                   targeted

          limit                     limitless

          eager                   eagerness

          But note that

          kidnap, outfit, worship,

          always double their final letter.

          kidnapped, outfitter, worshipping

          Take care with 2-1-1 words

          which are stressed on the second syllable.

          There is no change when you add a consonant ending:

          forget + ful          = forgetful

          equip + ment      = equipment

          Double the final consonant

          of the base word when you add a vowel ending:

          forget + ing         = forgetting

          equip + ed           = equipped

          forbid + en          = forbidden

          begin + er            = beginner

          This rule is really valuable

          butyou must be aware of some exceptions:

          " 2-1-1 words ending in -l

          seem to have a rule all of their own.

          Whetherthe stress is on the first or the second syllable,

          there is no change when a consonant ending is added:

          quarrel + some    = quarrelsome

          instal + ment       = instalment

          Double the -l when adding a vowel ending:

          quarrel + ing       = quarrelling

          instal + ed           = installed

          excel + ent           = excellent

" Notice how the change of stress

in these words affects the spelling:

confer         conferred   conferring conference

defer           deferred     deferring    deference

infer            inferred      inferring     inference

prefer         preferred    preferring   preference

refer            referred      referring     reference

transfer transferred transferring transference

See also-ABLE/-IBLE; -ANCE,-ANT/-ENCE,-ENT; -CAL/-CLE; -FUL;-LY.

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