2021-04-07 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด – A – addicted & devoted

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2021-04-07

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด – A – addicted & devoted

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Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง addicted = ‘uh-DIK-tid’

ออกเสียง devoted = ‘dih-VOH-tid’

Dictionary.com

USAGENOTE FOR ADDICT

Drug and alcohol addiction was historically considered

a moral failing, demonstrating a weakness of character.

This disparaging connotation

persistsin the nouns addict and alcoholic,

in spite of our evolving modern understanding of the problem.


Addiction is the complicated result of genetic predisposition

intersecting with dysfunctional behavior,

neurochemical modification,

environmental factors, and social influences.

Many major medical associationstreat addiction as a disease,

in part because it is a chronic condition

that is demonstrably present in a person’s neurophysiology.


Medical professionals, specialists, and advocates

in the addiction treatmentand recovery community

suggest using language that focuses on the whole person

and specifically mentions addictionor addictive behaviors

only when those details are relevant.

As an alternativeto calling someone an addict or alcoholic,

describethat individual who is addicted to painkillers,

a person with drug addiction,

the one who drinksalcohol excessively,

orsomeone who uses amphetamines.


Labels matter.

People who have an addiction are human beings, first and foremost.

They should not be reduced by the label addict or alcoholic

to be defined by a single facet of their complex humanity.

Dictionary.com

What’s Wrong With The Word “Addict”?

The word addict has been around in English since at least the 1500s, adapted from the Latin addictus,

meaningassigned, surrendered.”

But the way we talk about people with addiction is changing,

and here at Dictionary.com, we’re changing along with it.

In a major update to Dictionary.com, our lexicographers have

replaced all instances of addict used as a noun

witha person addicted toor a “habitual user of.”

For example, we no longer define our second sense of user

asone who uses drugs, especially an abuser or addict.”

Our definition now reads:

a person who is addicted to or abuses a controlled substance or alcohol;

one who uses illegalor addictive drugs.”

These and other revisions have improved over 25 entries across our site.

Another big change?

Our definition of addict as a noun, which dates back to the late 1800s,

now labels that the word is sometimes offensive.

We’ve also added

an extensive Sensitive Language Noteto our revised entry for addict.

But whywould a dictionary change a word that’s been around for centuries?

The way we use language evolves—and so does Dictionary.com.

And when it comes to words around addiction,

there’s been a lot of evolution in recent years.

Why calling someone an addict is harmful

Drug and alcohol addictionwas historically considered

a moral failing, demonstrating a weakness of character,”

explains Dictionary.com Lexicographer Heather Bonikowski.

“This disparaging connotation persists in the nouns addict and alcoholic,

in spite of our evolving modern understanding of the problem.”

Bonikowski specifically notes alcoholic for reason.

She led the implementation of our changes to addict

in parallel with revisions to the sometimes offensive noun alcoholic,

which we now define as

a person with alcoholismor alcohol use disorder;

a personaddicted to intoxicating drinks.”

From disparaging slang and informal expressions to technical terms, English has many words for people who

—while they may not have alcohol use disorder, another new entry in our dictionary

are habitual drinkers of alcohol.

Words used for these people,

like lush or dipsomaniac,

have been historically glossed using the noun alcoholic;

we revised our definitions of these terms

to be in line with whole-person language.

Using words like addict

to refer to peoplehas become increasingly stigmatizing,

Jess Keefe, a Senior Editor with Shatterproof, tells Dictionary.com.

Shatterproof is a national nonprofit

focused on educating the public on the disease of addiction.

“There’s a lot of disdainfor the people we call addicts,” Keefe says,

“It’s the only medical conditionwhere you’re criminalized for what your body does.”

That’s what the noun addict has come to connote to most English speakers: “criminal,” “problem.”

And to the people who are facing addiction,

hearing themselves described asnothing more than

an addict can be extremely dehumanizing.

“You start to believe it; you start to internalizeit,” Keefe says.

“If people don’t believe they can get better, they won’t.”

Changing societal perception of substance-use disorders

means changing the language surrounding the topic of addiction,

and as the updates to Dictionary.com show, that’s happening.

How doctors helped drive dictionary changes

Providing insight into the complex nature of addiction,

Bonikowski explains:

Addiction is the complicated result of genetic predisposition

intersecting with dysfunctional behavior, neurochemical modification, environmental factors, and social influences.

Many major medical associations treat addiction as a disease,

in part because it is a chronic condition

that is demonstrably present in a person’s neurophysiology.”

Dictionary.com’s updates reflect the change in language surrounding addiction has been led in large part by medical practitioners.

In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association published

its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5)

with new language that removed the words abuse and dependence

in relation to addictive(and often illegal) substances.

In 2017, the director of the federal Office of National Drug Control Policy directed all federal agencies

to adjust both internal and external communications

to language that adheres to the DSM-5.

Organizations from the American Medical Association

tothe American Society of Addiction Medicine

have made similar calls to their membership

to adopt non-stigmatizing languagefor all communications

(written and spoken) about addiction.

Newsrooms are doing their part, too

Changeshave been recorded on a cultural level too.

In 2017, the Associated Press (AP) added a new entry

to its AP Stylebook

—an English grammar style and usage guide

used by thousands of publications across the country

—that includes guidance to avoid the use of words

such as abuse, problem, abuser, and addict.

In their new entry, AP editors note:

“Many researchers and organizations,

including the Office of National Drug Control Policy

and the International Society of Addiction Journal Editors,

agree that stigmatizingor punitive-sounding language

can be inaccurate by emphasizing the person, not the disease;

can be a barrier to seeking treatment;

and can prejudice even clinicians.”

Individual newsrooms have been following suit.

In spring 2018, the Philadelphia Media Network,

which includes the Inquirer, Daily News, and Philly.com,

put its own kibosh on use of the word addict as a noun.

The move was in part due to the AP’s recommendations

and in part because of requests by local health officials,

Assistant Managing Editor David Sullivan tells Dictionary.com.

With proximity to the so-called “Pharmaceutical Belt,”

in addition to the effects of the country’s opioid crisis

in the greater Philly area,

an increasing amount of column inches

are being devoted to issues of addiction

—and that meant making a choice on how to codify language for reporters.

The Philadelphia Media Network’s style guide

leaves room for the use of addict in quotes or usage

by those who want to self-identify as addict,

but it makes a general rule for writers to

“use a phrase that respects the individual as a person

who is not defined by being addicted

a person in (or with) addiction, an addicted person, and the like.”

And it’s not just editors and copyeditors:

many writers, notably food writers,

are also transforming how they characterize foods.

Based on the guidance of health experts,

these writers are no longer casually describing extremely delicious foods

the sorts of grub you just can’t resist noshing

as addictive or like crack,

as such terminology make light of addictions.

What is person-first language?

The switch from calling a person an addict

toconstructions like

a person addicted to, habitual user, a person with an addiction, and someone facing addiction

are in line withwhat’s called person-first language.

Person-first language puts the human being

ahead oftheir diagnosis.

Person-first language has been around for decades,

with its champions arguing that it prevents

the dehumanizing of people that comes with limiting discussion

about them to a disease or condition.

For example, it’s preferred to refer to

a person with a physical disability—not a quadrapalgeic,

which reduces a whole personto their disability.

But speaking of preferences,

it’s always advisable to ask a person, if you can,

howthey prefer to refer to themselves.

Its application extends beyondaddiction,

with the Centers for Disease Control

and similar organizations requiring person-first language

when talking about (or addressing) people

with a range of health conditionsand disabilities.

A person with cerebral palsy, for example,

is a use case that is encouraged,

while calling someone a CP victim

has been determined to be offensiveand disparaging.

The Special Olympics has long been

a proponent of person-first language

in its campaign to end the usage of the offensive “R-word,”

replacing itwith more inclusive language

that references a person with intellectual disabilities.

Why whole-person language matters

Changing the language of addiction

and replacing words like addict with more human, holistic,

and person-first descriptorsis a good thing to do,

but does it make a difference?

Yes, according to science.

In 2010, Harvard Medical School Professor John Kelly

conducted two studies to test a theory

that exposure to specific terms associated with addiction

affect our unconscious biases.

In one, Kelly worked with health clinicians,

and in another he worked with the general public,

presenting each group to descriptions

of someone facing a substance-use disorder.

In some descriptions,

the person was referred to as a “substance abuser,

while in others, they were described as

having a “substance-use disorder.”

The findings were even more conclusive

and impactful than Kelly anticipated.

“In that study with mental-health clinicians

and one that followed with the general-public sample,

we found that the ‘abuser’ terminology evoked more negative,

punitive, blaming attitudes toward individuals

suffering from substance-related conditions

thanthe term ‘substance-use disorder’,”

Kelly tells Dictionary.com.

“The implications of these findings struck me

as being very important given how stigma

prevents people from seeking help,

and we found that the language we use

can systematically bias someone’s viewpoint

toward that individual increasing stigma and discrimination.”

As a result of his study,

Kelly helped the Recovery Research Institute

to create what’s called the Addictionary,

a database of addiction-related terms

to help both clinicians and the general public

find the right words to usewhen talking about addiction.

So, what’s the final word on the word addict?

Here’s what the “Addictionary”has to say:

Don’t say addict.

Describe them as “a person with, or suffering from, addiction

or substance use disorder.

After all, a person is a person. They’re more thanjust an addict.”

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Addicted & devoted

Addict is notable because it's not a drug word

repurposed asa general word:

in fact, when people first began using it,

it often was in reference to coffee, rather than morphine or opium.

The earliest known use of the noun form of addict

is a slightly judgmental articlein the Illinois Medical Journal from 1899:

“Indulgers in stimulating food, gluttonous feeders, tea and coffee addicts, are much more prone to beget degenerate and inebriate offspring

than are the moderate usersof alcohol with generally temperate habits.”

So, the use of addict

to describe any sort of chemical dependency isn't new: it's very old.

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