2021-01-12 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด S – Simile & metaphor

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2021-01-12

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด S – Simile & metaphor

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Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง Simile = ‘SIM-uh-lee’

ออกเสียง metaphor = ‘MET-uh-fawr’

Dictionary of Unfamiliar Words by Diagram Group

metaphor

1. A comparison of one person or thingwith another

    by saying thatthe first is the second,

    as in “He was a tiger in combat.”

2. Use of an object or action to representanother.

Mixed metaphor is the joining together

of unmatched metaphors with ridiculous results.

Farlex Trivia Dictionary.

metaphor

  • trope = A figurative or metaphorical use of a word or phrase.
  • ingrain, ingrained = Ingrain literally means "work into the grain" (originally, of fabric),

and ingrained is metaphorically"deep-seated."

  • farce = First meant forcemeat stuffing and

came to be used metaphorically

when a humorous play was "stuffed"

in between two more serious acts of the main theatrical presentation

—or for interludesof impromptu buffoonery in a dramatic presentation.

  • relieve = Metaphorically, to "alleviate, lighten," from Latin relevare, "raise again."

Dictionary.com

This Or That: Simile vs. Metaphor

Simile vs. metaphor

… it’s the age-old question that none of us can keep straight.

So, let’s try looking at it a different way

Similes and metaphors are bothways to compare things, right?

But … a metaphor is a bit more dramatic,

like the theater-school student; he’s directand he exaggerates … just a bit.

When complimenting you,

the metaphor tells you “your smileis sunshine,”

and “baby, you’re a firework.

No ifs, ands, or butsabout it.

(And yes, most metaphors are into Katy Perry too.)

Then, there’s simile.

She’s that person who’s more reserved, analytical, and thoughtful.

When she compares things, she usually uses the words like or as.

She’s not as direct or dramatic as metaphor

… but she’s getting the same job done:

comparing one thing to another.

When simile compliments you

… she uses her words to gently suggest “your smile is like sunshine,

or “your personality is as energetic asa firework.”

Who you chose is up to you and it can depend on the situation

… they’re both great at comparisons, really.

(show somebody swiping right?)

Essential Literary Terms

Aristotle wrote that mastery over the art of metaphor

is a sign of genius—and it turns out it he was right.

Literary devices, including simile, allusion,and satire,

not only give life to our words, but also make us … smarter?

For example, cognitive research has found that

deciphering an ironic statement takes twice the effort

as understanding a more straightforward comment.

Makes sense, right?

Someone says “What a lovely day” (when it’s lousy weather),

and our brains do the work of first interpreting the words literally,

and then gathering the additional information

needed about the context to understand the joke.

So let’s take time to get to know these 13 essential literary devices.

Where would we be without a well-placed yeah, right

(it can be used ironically!)

or an exaggeration like I'm so hungry I could eat a horse!

(who hasn't said this hyperbole at least once)?

metaphor

We know how Aristotle feels about a metaphor,

but what does this term mean at its most basic form?

A metaphor is a figure of speechin which a term is applied to something

to which it is not literally applicablein order to suggest a resemblance,

as in She is a rose.

Excluding the possibility that

the subject of this sentence is literally a flower,

this example suggests that the subject possesses figurative qualities

or attributes of a rose,

such as exquisite beauty or perhaps a prickly disposition.

One famous metaphor is the Doomsday Clock,

a symbolic clock that represents how close the planet isto global disaster.

simile

Metaphor is often confused with simile,

a figure of speech in which two unlike things are compared;

this comparison often uses the word like or as.

To build on the example in the previous slide,

she is like a rose and as thorny as a rose bush

are examples of simile.

analogy

Simile and metaphor are both forms of analogy,

the illustration of one idea by a more familiaror accessible idea

that is in some way parallel.

In his novel Cocktail Time,

P.G. Wodehouse uses the analogy of a man

expecting to hear a rose petal drop in the Grand Canyon

to illustrate the futility of a novelist hoping for swift success.

It is as unlikely to hear that rose petal drop as it is

for a novelist to get great success on their first try.

And, here's a real-world analogy

that you may have seen pop up in the news

... the nuclear football.

Merriam-Webster Dictionaryv

Simile vs. Metaphor

Many people have trouble distinguishing between simile and metaphor.

A glance at their Latin and Greek roots offers a simple way

of telling these two closely-related figures of speech apart.

Simile comes from the Latin word similis (meaning “similar, like”),

which seems fitting, since the comparison indicated by a simile

will typically contain the words as or like.

Metaphor, on the other hand, comes from the Greek word metapherein

(“to transfer”), which is also fitting, since a metaphor is used in place of something.

“My love is like a red, red rose” is a simile,

and “love is a rose” is a metaphor.

What is metaphor?

"You're a peach!" We've all heard the expression,

and it's a good example of what we call metaphor.

A metaphor is a figure of speech in which

a word or phrase denoting one kind of object or action

is used in place of another

to suggest a likeness or analogy between them:

the person being addressed in "you're a peach"

is being equated with a peach,

with the suggestion being that the person is pleasing or delightful

in the way that a peach is pleasing and delightful.

A metaphor is an implied comparison,

as in "the silk of the singer's voice,"

in contrast to the explicit comparisonof the simile,

which uses like or as,

as in "a voice smooth like silk."

When we use metaphor, we make a leap beyond rational,

ho-hum comparison to an identificationor fusion of two objects,

 resulting in a new entity that has characteristics of both:

the voice isn't like silk; it is silk.

Many critics regard the making of metaphors as a system of thought

antedating or bypassing logic.

Metaphor is the fundamental language ofpoetry,

although it is common on all levels and in all kinds of language.

Lots of common words we use every day were

originally vivid images, although they exist now as dead metaphors

whose original aptness has been lost.

The word daisy, for example, comes from an Old English word meaning "day's eye."

The ray-like appearance of the daisy, which opens and closes with the sun, is reminiscent of an eye that opens in the morning and closes at night.

The expression time flies is also metaphorical,

with time being identified with a bird.

In poetry a metaphor may perform varied functions,

from noting simple similarity between things

to evoking a broad set of associations;

it may exist as a minor element, or it may be the central concept

and controlling image of the poem.

The metaphor of an iron horse for a train, for example,

is the elaborate central concept of one of Emily Dickinson's poems

—though neither iron horse nor train appears in the poem,

the first and final stanzas of which are:

I like to see it lap the Miles—

And lick the Valleys up—

And stop to feed itself at Tanks—

And then—prodigious step

And neigh like Boanerges—

Then—prompter than a Star

Stop—docile and omnipotent

At it's own stable door—

A mixed metaphor is the linking of two or more elements

that don't go together logically.

It happens when the writer or speaker isn't being sensitive

to the literal meaning of the words

or to the falseness of the comparison being used.

A mixed metaphor is often two metaphorssloppily mashed together

as in, "the ball is in the court of public opinion,"

which joins "the ball is in your court"to "the court of public opinion."

A mixed metaphor may also be used with great effectiveness,

however, as in Hamlet's speech:

Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer

The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune

Or to take arms against a sea of troubles

For strictly correct completion of the metaphor,

sea should be replaced by a wordlike host.

By using "sea of troubles,"

however, Shakespeare evokes the overwhelming nature of Hamlet's troubles.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Metaphor

Definition:

: a figure of speech in which a word or phrase

literally denoting

one kind of object or idea is used in place ofanother

to suggest a likeness or analogybetween them

(as in drowning in money); broadly: figurative language

Example:

"Is 'Moby Dick' a metaphor for the struggle of trying to read 'Moby Dick'?" – Tweet from @ColbertReport, August 16, 2013

About the Word:

The Greek ancestor of metaphor meant "to transfer; change."

The metaphor transfers a name for something to another thing

in order to suggest likeness between the two,

as in Homer's repeated use of "the wine-dark sea."

A mixed metaphor combines different metaphorical images or ideas

in a way that is foolish or illogical,

like this quotation reported in the Chicago Tribune in 2007:

"So now what we are dealing with is the rubber meeting the road, and instead of biting the bullet on these issues, we just want to punt."

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Useful Rhetorical Devices

'Simile' and 'metaphor' are just the beginning.

What Is a Rhetorical Device and Why are They Used?

As with all fields of serious and complicatedhuman endeavor

(that can be considered variously

as an art, a science, a profession, or a hobby),

there is a technical vocabulary associated with writing.

Rhetoric is the name for the study of writing or speaking

as a means of communication or persuasion,

and though a writer doesn’t need to know

the specific labels for certain writing techniques

in order to use them effectively,

it is sometimes helpful to have a handy taxonomy

for the ways in which words and ideasare arranged.

This can help to discuss and isolate ideas

that might otherwise become abstract and confusing.

As with the word rhetoric itself,

many of these rhetorical devices come from Greek.

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expression

Simile & metaphor

A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a term or phrase

is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable.

This is done in order to suggest a resemblance:

She is a perfect lamb.

Metaphor and simile are allied in meaning;

a simile express resemblance directly

but does so by using as, as if, like:

“She is as sweet as a flower.”

Unfortunately, most metaphors and some similes

are either strained or trite.

Many figures of speech are often mixed;

standard advice is

to sustain one figure and not suddenly shiftto another:

 “We had the crankcase drained and thus nipped our trouble in the bud.

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