Hypovolumic shock
     Cardiogenic shock
     Distributive shock (maldistribution of blood flow)
     Obstructive shock (extracardiac obstruction to blood flow)

Shock treatment
     Airway Control
             –       Endotracheal Intubation
     Circulatory Stabilization
            –       Adequate intravenous access : large-bore peripheral line
            –       Fluid resuscitation : Isotonic crystalloid
            –       Vasopressor : when the response to fluid resuscitation is not adequate or when fluid infusion is contraindicated



Treatment failure
       Is the patient appropriately monitored?
       Is the patient adequately volume resuscitated?
       Is the IV connected appropriately?
       Are the vasopressors mixed adequately?
       Is there an occult penetrating injury/ hidden bleeding?
       Does the patient have pneumothorax?
       Does the patient have adrenal insufficiency?
       Is the patient allergic to medication?
       Is there cardiac temponade? (esp. in renal failure or cancer patients)