2021-05-05 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด – A – apology & excuse & pardon

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2021-05-05

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด – A – apology & excuse & pardon

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ความหมาย อาจผันแปร ตาม ตำแหน่ง/หน้าที่ ในประโยค

Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง apology = ‘uh-POL-uh-jee’

ออกเสียง excuse – verb = ‘ik-SKYOOZ’ – noun = ‘ik-SKYOOS

ออกเสียง pardon = ‘PAHR-dn’

Dictionary.com

SYNONYM STUDY FOR EXCUSE

Excuse, forgive, pardon

imply being lenient or giving up the wish to punish.

Excuse means to overlook some (usually) slight offense:

to excuse bad manners.

Forgive is applied to excusing more serious offenses:

to forgive and forget.

Pardon usually applies to a specific act of lenience or mercy

byan official or superior:

The governor was asked to pardon the condemned criminal.

Excuse, apology both imply an explanation of some failure or failing.

Excuse implies a desire to avoid punishment or rebuke.

Apology usually implies acknowledgment that one has been in the wrong.

Dictionary.com

SYNONYMSTUDY FOR PARDON

Pardon, amnesty, reprieve

are nounsreferring to the cancellation, or delay

with the possibility of eventual cancellation,

of a punishment or penalty

assigned for the violation of a military regulation or a civillaw;

absolutionfrom guilt is not implied,

merely a remission of the penalty.

A pardon is granted to an individual,

often by the actionof a government official

such asa governor, president, or monarch,

and releases the individual from any punishment

due forthe infraction of the law,

as a death sentence, prison term, or fine:

tobe released from prison with a full pardon.

An amnesty is a pardon granted to a group of persons

forpast offenses against a government;

itoften includes an assurance of no future prosecution:

to grant amnesty to political prisoners;

an amnesty period for delinquent taxpayers during which no penalties are assessed.

A reprieve is a delay of impending punishment,

especiallya death sentence;

it does not cancelor remit the punishment,

it simply delaysit, usually for a specific period of time

or until a decision can be arrived at

as tothe possibility of pardon or reduction of sentence:

a last-minute reprieve, allowing the filing of an appeal to the Supreme Court.

Dictionary.com

10 Ways To Apologize Without Saying “Sorry”

Have you ever counted how many times you say the word "sorry" in a day?

Chances are it's more often than you think.

A study conducted in 2016 by the BBC

reports that Brits say it around eight times a day!

So where does this word come from?

Sorry has been around since before the year 900,

with roots in Old English and Middle English.

This pesky, although well-intentioned,

little word tends to slip into situations where it doesn't belong,

such as

when you accidentally bump into someone on your way to work,

orwhen you don't understand something.

The problem with saying "sorry" so often is that it loses its meaning

when it's needed to truly comfort another person.

A sorry doesn't sound so genuine when you've heard it a million times.

So how do we fixthis sorry epidemic?

Read on to figure out which interactions might benefit from another word (instead of sorry).

You'd be surprisedhow many alternatives there are!

excuse me

Never underestimate the power of excuse me.

Not only isit good manners,

butit should be used instead of sorry in many situations.

Excuse me is a phrasal idiom

usedto be polite in a variety of situations,

from getting someone's attention to beginning a dissenting opinion.

It's second natureto offer up a "sorry"

when we run into someone while walking.

But instead of blurting out one out, simply say "Excuse me!"

The definitionof sorry is to feel "regret, distress,or to express sympathy."

Most of the situations we find ourselves in

rarely evoke these kinds of emotions,

especially running into someone!

Excuse me

both announces your presence and prepares the receiver

for what you're about to say.

Excuse me also works

if you do something unexpected, like burp.

And in a pinch, you can also use it to ask forclarification.

thank you

Here's a phrase most of us have been taught

since childhood(in addition to please, of course).

A thank you not only works wonders

for making the person you're talking to feel good,

but also gives you a sense of gratitude.

Are you constantly late?

Instead of constantly apologizing for it,

the next time you seeyour companion say,

"Thank you so much for your patience."

Thank, much like the word sorry,

has been used since the year 900.

Evenits Old English root, thanc, expresses gratitude.

The definition still holds true today:

thank you is an expression of thanks or gratitude.

This helpful tip works in almost any situation

that doesn't needa sorry.

"Thank youfor listening to me," instead of "I'm sorry I always vent to you."

Orhow about "Thank you for explaining that to me,"

insteadof "I'm sorry, I don't understand?"

Whoops!

Sorry is so ingrained in our everydaylanguage

thatwe'll even say it to no one in particular.

Walking with your friend and you trip over the sidewalk?

"Oh, sorry.

" How about if you've ever spilled a drink on the floor or on yourself?

Have you accidentally let a "sorry" slip out then too?

This is where a good ol' interjection worksjust fine.

Whoops! is one that implies you've made a mistake,

but takes away any seriousness, and can liven up a faux pas.

Whoops is considered a variant of oops,

which might be a shortened form of upsidaisy.

Whoops as an interjection became popular in the 1900s.

There are many others to choose from too,

like oops, whoa, or uh oh.

The interjection world is your oyster.

pardon

People have been using pardon as an interjection

(short for "I beg your pardon") since the 1800s,

which may be why if you don't use this word often,

it can sound a little too posh and proper.

Butit has its uses in our everyday lives.

In fact,

it's a great alternativeto sorry

becauseit shifts some of the responsibility to you.

When passing by someone in a tight space,

pardon me alerts them to your presence

and allows them to move out of the way.

Saying"sorry" in the same scenario

can seem likeyou're inconveniencing the other person

when that's not true.

Notice how many of these examples

simply involve interacting in space with other human beings?

There are a couple other ways

to use pardon to your benefit.

For example,

"Sorry to offend you" can sound harsh.

"Pardon mefor making you feel bad"

relievesthe other person from having to acceptan apology.

apologize

So, you've found yourself in a situation

where you actually need to say "sorry."

As we've established,

evena sorry with the most emotion behind it

can sound trite if you use the word too often.

Switch up the script

and exchange your "I'm sorry" for "I apologize."

We tend give apologize moreweight

because we don't hear it as much as I'm sorry.

An apology is an expression of remorse,

and separating if froma trite "sorry"

could help us take it much more seriously.

If you need a bit of extra help,

throw in a modifier:

"I trulyapologize" or "I sincerely apologize" work in a pinch

and will get your message across.

There's also the phrase

my apologies, which can be effective if used correctly.

Apologize is a great word

because it can even prompt someone to respond:

"I accept your apology." Voilà!

my fault | my bad

While fault as well as bad sound negative in many contexts,

when you usethem to apologize for minor things,

they bring some levity to your blunders.

These expressions lean more toward slang

and are very casual, so don't use them in a serious environment

in which pardon would be more appropriate!

Latin buffs will be familiar with mea culpa,

which is Latin for my fault.

My fault, which is an expression of culpability,

can be used in a formal context.

My bad is definitely informal

and should be used only between friends.

Accidentally spill a drink on a friend?

"Totally my fault / my bad, I'll help you clean that up!" fits perfectly.

My fault and my bad both scratch the itch of needing

to say something right away to smooth over a misstep.

Since my bad in particular has been used since the 1980s,

it's possible you already have a place for it in your vocabulary.

If you're hip on newer slang,

my b is a more recent alternative.

sorry not sorry

This slangis actually cheeky

—it doesn't reallymean sorry,

butit can be used in place of it anyways!

Beware:

it'll sound very unapologetic,

butit asserts the fact that

you don't think an apology is necessary for being yourself.

The phrase can be traced back to the early 2000s,

and it became bonafide slang

thanks to its spread in the 2010s,

whenit starred in singer Demi Lovato's song Sorry Not Sorry.

It's typically usedas an assertion of identity

directed toward those people

who think you need to say "sorry" for living your best life.

Sorry not sorry works

when you're doing something for yourself,

like taking the last cupcake at the company party

or cutting someone off on the highway so you don't miss your exit.

This is slang, so, best to save it for when you're with your friends!

Can you repeat?

No, don't repeat sorry!

This one is about asking someone to repeat their question.

Instead ofsimply asking someone to repeat what they've said,

too often we shift the blame to ourselves:

"I'm sorry, I didn't understand that."

Drop the sorry all together, it doesn't belong here!

Repeat'sdefinition is "to say or utter again,"

and was recorded in English during the 14th century.

Asking someone to repeat themselves isn't rude;

it promotes healthy communication.

Next time you don't understand something,

ask: "Could you repeat that point?"

regret | remorseful

Reserve these words for only the most serious of apologies.

Regret and remorse are for

when a simple sorry isn't going to cut it.

These two words hold much more gravitas than I apologize, too.

Both regret and remorse

mean "to feel sorrow or disappointment."

That sorrow applies to things that have been done in the past

or to something that was a failure.

Let's elaborate on these feelings a bit more:

to make these wordshold weight,

imagine feeling penitent,

oran intense sorrow for wrongdoing and a need to atone.

Your apology will truly sound from the heart.

While we hope you're never in such a state

that these words are necessary,

here is how you would use them in a sentence (instead of sorry):

"I feel so much regret over what happened,"

or"I'm really remorseful over how my actions made you feel."

sympathy

When comforting a good friend,

it's important to know whether they want advice,

to be listenedto, or to get your sympathy.

But giving sympathycan be difficult,

and we often fall back on a phrase

like, "I'm sorrythat happened to you."

This doesn't help your friend,

nor does it make you feel like you're being particularly helpful.

Sympathy sounds a lot like the word empathy,

but theyare not the same.

Althoughthey both come from the Greek root pathos,

empathy is understanding what others are feeling

to an extent of feeling ityourself,

while sympathy is an acknowledgement of someone else's emotions.

So, whichshould you try to channel on these occasions?

Tryexpressing sympathy over whatever is ailing them.

If they studied hard for a test but still didn't do well,

you can say"I know you studied a lot

and it must be hard to find out you didn't do as well as you thought."

This validates their emotions without making

the event seem insurmountably negative.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Choosethe Right Synonym for excuse

Verb

EXCUSE, CONDONE, PARDON, FORGIVE

mean to exact neither punishment nor redress.

EXCUSE mayrefer to

specific acts especiallyin social or conventional situations

orthe person responsible for these.

excuse an interruption

excused them for interrupting

Often the term implies extenuatingcircumstances.

injustice excuses strong responses

CONDONE implies that one overlooks without censure behavior

(such as dishonestyor violence)

that involvesa serious breach of a moral, ethical, or legal code,

and the term may refer to the behavior or to the agent responsible for it.

a society that condones alcohol but not narcotics

PARDON implies that one remits a penalty

duefor an admitted or established offense.

pardon a criminal

FORGIVE implies that one gives up all claim

to requitaland to resentment or vengeful feelings.

could not forgive their rudeness

Noun

APOLOGY, APOLOGIA, EXCUSE, PLEA, PRETEXT, ALIBI

mean matter offered in explanation or defense.

APOLOGY usually applies to an expression of regret

for a mistake or wrong with implied admission of guiltor fault

and with or withoutreference to mitigating or extenuating circumstances.

said by way of apology that he would have met them if he could

APOLOGIA implies not admission of guilt or regret

but a desireto make clear the grounds for some course, belief, or position.

his speech was an apologia for his foreign policy

EXCUSE impliesan intent to avoid or remove blame or censure.

used illness as an excuse for missing the meeting

PLEA stressesargument or appeal

for understandingor sympathy or mercy.

her usual plea that she was nearsighted

PRETEXT suggests subterfuge and the offering of false reasons or motives in excuse or explanation.

used any pretext to get out of work

ALIBI implies a desire to shift blame or evade punishment

and imputesmere plausibility to the explanation.

his alibi failed to stand scrutiny

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Choosethe Right Synonym for pardon

Verb

EXCUSE, CONDONE, PARDON, FORGIVE

meanto exact neither punishment nor redress.

EXCUSE may refer to specific acts

especially in socialor conventional situations

orthe person responsible for these.

excuse an interruption

excused them for interrupting

Often the term impliesextenuating circumstances.

injustice excuses strong responses

CONDONE implies that one overlooks without censure behavior

(such as dishonestyor violence)

that involves a serious breach of a moral, ethical, or legal code,

and the term may refer to the behavior or to the agent responsible for it.

a society that condones alcohol but not narcotics

PARDON implies that one remits a penalty

due foran admitted or established offense.

pardon a criminal

FORGIVE implies that one gives up all claim to requital

and to resentmentor vengeful feelings.

could not forgive their rudeness

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Apologies are easy, or so it would seem.

We utter them all the time for minor things without a second thought:

“Sorry, I’m running late.”

“Sorry, what did you say?”

“I’m sorry, but I was here first.”

But making a sincere apologyis something else altogether.

When we’ve truly wronged someone,

it’s important to chooseour words carefully

to make sureour apology is received well, and

to make sure we’re speaking from the heart.

Too often, however, our choice of words

(or where we put them)

undermines, derails, or otherwise muddles sincerity,

and the recipientis left more offended extenuating

thanthey were in the first place.

Here are six words

that can sabotage yourapology in no time flat. Proceed with caution!

1. You

There’s no better wayto apologize

withoutactually apologizing than following an

“I’m sorry” with this three-letterpronoun.

“I’m sorry you … [feel that way/think that/misinterpreted things/anything else].”

If you’resorry, be sorry for your own actions.

Don’t implythat the recipient was wrong to feel upset or hurt.

Of course, context is important.

Ifit applies,

then feel free to throw in you at other points,

as inthe always appreciated expressionYou were right, and I was wrong.”

2. But

This little conjunctionmay be the ultimate apology annihilator.

You never know what will come after it,

but whatever it is,

it’s bound to steer your mea culpa away

from sincerityand down a road of excuses and exculpations.

Best to leavethe phrase “I’m sorry, but … ” at the door.

3. If

Such a short littlepronoun,

with such massive passive-aggressive power.

If it came off that way …”

If I hurt you …”

If you think I was wrong …”

If you were wrong, there should be no ifs about it.

4. I

It’s obviously OK to start an apology with I,

as in I am sorry,”

but if the rest of your apology is filled with “I [this …]” and “I [that …]”

then there’s a good chance you’re making it all about you,

and not about the person you hurt.

Be mindfulof how you incorporate this term,

and whether what follows is a line of defense,

or something more earnest and useful.

5. Blame

While the rain(cue Milli Vanilli), tequila, or anything else

may have something to do with your actions,

saying, “I blame it on … ”

sucks the sincerity right out of an apology.

It implies that

you’re holding someoneor something other than yourself responsible,

and it sounds more like an explanation than a plea for forgiveness.

Plus, we all know that it can never really be the tequila’s fault.

6. Not

This mighty adverbcan come in

handy in all kinds of heartfelt apologetic phrases,

butthe tired “sorry, not sorryisn’t one of them.

Enough with the sarcastic sorrow.

Can we please just banish this phrase already?

Eitherbe sorry or don’t be sorry,

and if you’renot,

then words like unapologetic , impenitent, and obdurate

havea much nicer and respectful ring.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Choosethe Right Synonym for apology

APOLOGY, APOLOGIA, EXCUSE, PLEA, PRETEXT, ALIBI

meanmatter offered in explanation or defense.

APOLOGY usually applies

to an expression of regret for a mistake or wrong

withimplied admissionof guilt or fault

and with orwithout reference to mitigating or extenuatingcircumstances.

said by way of apology that he would have met them if he could

APOLOGIA implies not admission of guilt or regret

buta desire to make clear the grounds

for somecourse, belief, or position.

hisspeech was an apologia for his foreign policy

EXCUSE implies an intent to avoid or remove blameor censure.

used illness as an excuse for missing the meeting

PLEA stresses argument or appeal

for understanding or sympathy or mercy.

her usual plea that she was nearsighted

PRETEXT suggests subterfuge and the offering

of false reasons or motives in excuse orexplanation.

used any pretext to get out of work

ALIBI implies a desire to shift blame or evadepunishment and

imputes mere plausibility to the explanation.

his alibi failed to stand scrutiny

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Word History

The Non-Apology'Apology'

It'scommon to complain about non-apologies,

butthe original meaning of 'apology' wasn't "I'm sorry" at all

Some peoplemay have noticed that in recent years

therehas appeared a new kind of apology.

This apology, it must be said,

seemsto bear only a passing resemblance to the mea culpa

sort of apologies we all grew up with;

itoften is offered in the passive (“mistakes were made”),

orthe conditional (“If I have offended anyone I am sorry”),

and rarely entailsan outright admission of wrongdoing

onthe part of the apologizer.

Whendid the word apology stop meaning “I’m sorry”?

Beforeit ever began.

The first meaning of 'apology' was

“something saidor written in defense or

justification of what appears to others to be wrong."

These dogs aren't really sorry.

Apology comes to English from the Greek roots of apo- (“away from, off”) and logia (from logos, meaning “speech”).

The word's earliest meaning in English was

“something said orwritten in defense or justification

of what appearsto others to be wrong

or of what may be liable to disapprobation.

To anyonewho has ever studied ancient Greek

or read widely of certain philosophers, this will come as no surprise.

Plato’s Apology of Socrates

isan account of the self-defense presented at the trial of Socrates,

not an explanation of how that philosopher admitted his transgressions.

The earliest published use of apology we have evidence of

comes from the title of a work by Sir Thomas More,

the Catholic humanist and social philosopher of Henry VIII’s court.

The word appears in his 1533 work Apologye of Syr Thomas More, Knyght.

However, the first published use of a word

is not necessarily the same thing

as the first actual use of it,

and there has recently been discovered earlier,

hand-written evidenceof apology in correspondence

between members of the British court;

a letter addressed to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey in 1526

contains the line

“Here is an apologiemade for the defence of the Frenche King."

Ifyou encounter an apology anywhere in the 16th century

chances are very good that the word is indicating a defense or justification, as in the case of the 1550 potboiler

The Apology of Iohan Bale Agaynste a Ranke Papyst,

or Robert Crowley’s summer beach read of 1566,

An Apologie, or Defence, of those English Wryters & Preachers

which Cerberus the Three Headed Dog of Hell,

Chargeth wyth False Doctrine, Under the Name of Predestination.

So, we may instead ask when did the apology start meaningI’m sorry”?

That appears to have begunat the end of the 16th century,

and we may blame Shakespeare for this

(at least until we discover someone else who has used this word loosely before him).

Most dictionaries todaywill not provide the earliest known date

that a specific sense of a word appeared,

but the Oxford English Dictionary does,

and they currently have a line from Richard III:

“My Lord, there needs no such apologie."

Shakespeare is renowned as a creator of new words,

althoughhe is often mistakenly given credit

for coining elements of our vocabulary that already existed.

Yeteven though he did not invent most of the words

which he is purported to have invented,

he still was remarkably inventive with his language.

He would play with the English language,

stretching itand assigning new meanings to existing words

with astonishing aplomb and daring.

It may well turn out that some writer before Shakespeare

was usingthe word apology to indicate an admissionof

I goofed and I am sorry for it,”

but until we find such evidence

we may still say that the Bard is the father of the modern apology

—just not the “I’m sorry but not really sorry” kind.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Words of the Week - 1/22/2021

’Pardon’ & ‘Commute’

Donald Trump availed himself of the power of his presidency

toboth pardon and commute

the sentences of a number of federal prisoners.

Trump pardons73, commutes sentence for 70 others
— (headline) Al Jazeera, 20 Jan. 2021

Although both are considered acts of clemency,

pardon and commute differ in meaning.

Pardon, as a verb, may be defined as

“to absolvefrom the consequences of a fault or the punishment of crime:

free from penalty”; as a noun it has legal uses

such asa release from the legal penalties of an offense

and “an official warrant of remission of penalty as an act of clemency.”

To commute a sentence, in legal use commute means

“to change(a penalty) to one less severe especially out of clemency”;

when used as a noun

(“a change of a legal penalty or punishment to a lesser one”)

the word is commutation.

Dictionary of Problem Words in English

Apology& excuse & pardon

An apologyis an admission of discourtesy

or errortogether with an expression of regret.

An excuse is a statement made

or reasongiven for being released from blame.

An apology accepted guiltand seeks to make amends;

an excuse seeks to shift blame, deny guilt, and avoid censure:

“Please accept my apologyfor neglecting to send you an invitation.”

“His excuse for being late is that his alarm clock failed to go off.”

Does one correctly say “Excuseme” or “Pardon me”?

The formeris a weaker expression than the latter,

which implies guiltand request for forgiveness.

Excuse me” is the correct term to use

when askingsomeone

to be allowed to passor to overlook a minor matter.

Excuse me”should be used many times more often than “Pardon me” which is usually an expression of mistaken gentility and affectation.

Collins COBUILD English Usage

Excuse can be a noun or a verb.

When it is a noun, it is pronounced /ɪk'skjuːs/.

When it is a verb, it is pronounced /ɪk'skjuːz/.

1. used as a noun

An excuse is a reason that you give in order to explain

why something has been done, has not been done, or will not be done.

They are trying to find excuses for their failures.

There is no excuse for this happening in a new building.

You say that someone makes an excuse.

I made an excuse and left the meeting early.

You don't have to make any excuses to me.

Be Careful!
Don't say that someone 'says an excuse'.

2. used as a verb

Ifsomeone is excused from doing something,

they are officially allowed not to do it.

She is usually excused from her duties during the school holidays.

You can apply to be excused payment if your earnings are low.

In conversation,

ifyou say you must excuse yourself

or ifyou ask someone to excuse you,

you are saying politelythat you must leave.

Now I must excuse myself.

You'll have to excuse me; I ought to be saying goodnight.

Ifyou excuse someone for something wrong they have done,

you decide not tocriticize them or be angry with them.

Such delays cannot be excused.

Please excuse my bad handwriting.

3. 'forgive'

Forgive is used in a similar way.

However, when you say that you forgive someone,

you usually mean thatyou have already been angry with them or argued with them.

You cannot use 'excuse' in this way.

I forgave him everything.

4. 'excuse me'

People often say Excuse me as a way of politely apologizing

for something they are going to do.

For example,

you can say Excuse me when you are interrupting someone,

when you want to get their attention, or when you want to get past them.

Excuse me, but are you Mr Hess?

5. 'apologize'

However, when people say they are sorry for something they have done, don't say that they 'excuse themselves'.

You saythat they apologize.

Ifyou want to say that you are sorry for something you have done,

you say Sorry, I'm sorry, or I apologize.

She apologized for being so unkind.

'You're late.' – 'Sorry.'

See apologize

Collins COBUILD English Usage

pardon

You can apologize to someone by saying 'I beg your pardon'.

'You're sitting in my seat.' – 'Oh, I beg your pardon.'

Some Americanspeakers say 'Pardon me'.

'Pardon me!' said a man who had bumped into her.

British speakerssometimes say 'Pardon?'

when they have not heard or understoodwhat someone has said.

'His name is Hardeep.' – 'Pardon?' – 'I said, his name is Hardeep.'

Dictionary of Problem Words in English

Apology & excuse& pardon

An apology is an admission of discourtesy

or error together with an expression of regret.

An excuse is a statement made or reason given for being released from blame.

An apologyaccepts guilt and seeks to make amends;

an excuseseeks to shift blame, deny guilt, and avoid censure:

“Please accept my apology for neglecting to send you an invitation.”

“His excuse for being late is that his alarm clock failed to go off.”

Does one correctlysay “Excuse me” or “Pardon me”?

The former is a weaker expression than the latter,

which implies guiltand a request for forgiveness.

Excuse me” is the correct term to use when asking someone to be allowed to passor to overlook a minor matter.

Excuse me”should be used many times more often than “Pardon me,” which is usually an expression of mistaken gentility and affectation.

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