2021-04-07 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด – A – adhere & cohere & ad hoc

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2021-04-07

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด – A – adhere & cohere & ad hoc

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Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง adhere = ‘ad-HEER

ออกเสียง cohere = ‘koh-HEER

ออกเสียง ad hoc = ‘ad-HOK’ or ‘HOHK’

Dictionary.com

VOCAB BUILDER

What does ad hoc mean?

Something ad hoc is put together on the fly

for one narrow, pressing, or special purpose.

For example,

a government committee arranged to

address one specific problem would be an ad hoc committee.

More loosely, it can meanspontaneous,” “unplanned,” or “on the spot.”

Ad hoc is one of those Latin phrases

commonly foundin academic, law, and government contexts.

It literally meansfor this (thing).”

Where does ad hoc come from?

English borrowed the Latin phrase ad hoc in the mid 1500s,

when the expressionwas quickly being adopted

into legal and judicialwritings.

Ad hoc spreads as a term in such contexts in the 1800s.

A Louisiana Code of Practicefor civil law from 1839, for example,

lists the various situations where a person, such as a minor,

may be assignedwhat is called a curator ad hoc,

a “caretaker for this purpose.”

An 1869 judicial report from the state of New York,

as another instance, describes forming ad hoc committees

by the courts to investigate specific matters.

Around the same time, ad hoc was spreading to other areas.

The phrase ad hoc hypothesis began to appear

in scientific writing.

An ad hoc hypothesis is basically a scientific excuse, a logical fallacy.

It’s when someone makes up a new complication

to brush off evidence against their claim

like if you said there’s a little green alien following you around,

and when everyone asked where it was,

you said that only you could see it.

Of course, not all ad hoc hypotheses are out of this world.

An 1894 article on color perception

points outhow two of the common theories of the time

relied on an extra, unproven ad hoc hypothesis

about the vibration of light waves.

Today, there’s even a festival dedicated to ad hoc hypotheses,

where scientists can blow off steam by making stuff up.

In 1970, Alvin Toffler, the author of Future Shock,

proposed that ad hoc organizations had some real benefits.

Riffing on political termslike democracy,

Toffler popularized the word adhocracy

(from a slightly earlier coinage in 1966)

to describe a kind of flexible organizational structure

that could replace bureaucracy.

Six years later, adhocracy was discussed in a business book

aimed at administrators.

An entire book on the subject followed in 1990,

and the topic became popular again in 2015

as an organizational model for structuring businesses.

In computing, an ad hoc network

is a network of computerstemporarily

connected directly to other computers without a router or hub.

Ad hoc networks were discussed in a communications journal in 1994,

and there is currently an entire journal dedicated to the topic.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Choose the Right Synonym for adhere

STICK, ADHERE, COHERE, CLING, CLEAVE

meanto become closely attached.

STICK implies attachment by affixing or by being glued together.

couldn't get the label to stick

ADHERE is often interchangeable with stick

but sometimes implies a growing together.

antibodies adhering to a virus

COHERE suggests a sticking together of parts so that they form a unified mass.

eggs will make the mixture cohere

CLING implies attachment by hanging on with arms or tendrils.

clinging to a capsized boat

CLEAVE stresses strength of attachment.

the wet shirt cleaved to his back

Choose the Right Synonym for cohere

STICK, ADHERE, COHERE, CLING, CLEAVE

meanto become closely attached.

STICK implies attachment by affixing or by being glued together.

couldn't get the label to stick

ADHERE is often interchangeable with stick

but sometimes implies a growing together.

antibodies adhering to a virus

COHERE suggests a sticking together of parts so that they form a unified mass.

eggs will make the mixture cohere

CLING implies attachment by hanging on with arms or tendrils.

clinging to a capsized boat

CLEAVE stresses strength of attachment.

the wet shirt cleaved to his back

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Cohere vs Adhere

When you finish writing a paper, you may feel that it coheres well,

since it's sharply focused and all the ideas seem to support each other.

When all the soldiers in an army platoonfeel like buddies,

the platoon has become a cohesive unit.

In science classyou may learn the difference between cohesion

(the tendency of a chemical's molecules to stick together)

and adhesion (the tendency of the molecules of two different substances to stick together).

Water molecules tend to cohere,

So, waterfalls from the sky in drops, not as separate molecules.

But water molecules also adhere to molecules of other substances,

So, raindrops will often cling to the underside of a clothesline

for a while before gravity pulls them down.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Ad hoc

Latin meaning: "for this"

English meaning:

formedor used for specific or immediate problems or needs;

also: improvised

Example:

Inspired by Griffith, I recently prepared an ad hoc lunch

by taking a sheet of nori (seaweed),

spreading yogurt cheese on it,

topping it with leftover sushi rice, avocado, smoked salmon, broccoli sprouts, slices of mango and black sesame seeds.
—Beverly Levitt, The Santa Fe New Mexican, 22 Sept. 2014

Ad hoc can still function as an adverb, as it's used in Latin,

to mean "for the particular end or case at hand without consideration of wider application,"

as in"coming up with rules ad hoc."

Butit's more common in English as an adjective

describing instances of having to come up with something

using whatever is at hand.

It's also found in such phrases as ad hoc committee,

ora committee assembled to achieve a particular task

(such as an investigation).

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

ad hoc

Did You Know?

Ad hoc literally means "for this" in Latin,

and in English this almost always means "for this specific purpose".

Issues that come up in the course of a project

often require immediate, ad hoc solutions.

An ad hoc investigating committee

is authorized to look intoa matter of limited scope.

An ad hoc ruling by an athletic council

is intended to settle a particular case,

and is not meant to serve as a model for later rulings.

Ifan organization deals with too many things on an ad hoc basis,

it may mean someone hasn't been doing enough planning.

Dictionary of Problem Words in English

adhere & cohere

These words have related meanings,

as issuggested by their common Latin root (here from haerere),

which implies stickingor clinging together.

One object adheres to another through the use of glue;

a person adheres to a believe, a cause, a religion, or a political party.

Coheresuggests the sticking togetherof items already present

(The particles cohered to form a sticky mass)

and the logical or natural connectionof ideas and objects

(Each part of his presentationseemed to coherewith established facts).

Dictionary of Problem Words in English

ad hoc

This phrase, straight from Latin and pronounced ‘ad hock

literallymeans “toward this.”

In Englishit is used to meanwith respect to this

orfor this purpose only

and is applied to a group

created to deal with a particular situation, case, cause, or purpose.

“The chairman appointed an ad hoc committee to supervise the voting.

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