2021-02-21 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด U – urban & urbane

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2021-02-21

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด U – urban & urbane

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Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง urban = ‘UR-buhn’

ออกเสียง urbane = ‘ur-BEYN

Abused, Confused, & Misused Words by Mary Embree

Urban = relating to a city;

= characteristicof city life:

There are many benefits to urban living.

Not to be confused with:

urbane = polished and elegant in manneror style;

suave; cosmopolitan:

He has a sophisticated, urbane way about him.

[Urban and urbane once meant the same thing:

belonging to a city.

Both words are derived from the Latin urbanis.

Later, urbane developedthe more specialized sense

of refined, polite, and elegant,

which were considered to be characteristics of those

who lived in cities rather than those living in the country.]

Dictionary.com

HISTORICALUSAGE OF URBAN

In the United States,

racial identitieshave historically been

interwoven with disparate economicand geographical experiences.

This has given rise to a coded language

In which the terms urban and suburban

have distinct racial connotations.

In the early 20th century,

factories in northern cities recruited large numbers of

African Americans from southern states.

This migration north transformed the

historically rural Black American experience into an urban one.


In the 1950s, courts outlawed segregation

and mandated the racial integration of schools,

resultingin decades of white flight.

Many white families abandoned inner-cityneighborhoods,

relocating themselves and their assets to suburban communities.

Discriminationover the years kept suburbia largely white

and wealthy, enjoying well-funded school districts and other amenities.


Meanwhile, urban life, especially in the inner city,

became increasingly associated with poverty and decay.

In response, the government

built housing projectsfor low-income residents,

but this further concentrated poverty in isolated neighborhoods

(ghettos that became popularly knownas 'hoods ).


By the end of the 20th century,

inner-city urban lifewas associated with African Americans

of low socioeconomic status.

Similarly, in discussions about poverty, crime, and drugs,

the terms inner-city and urban

became convenient euphemisms for Black

a way to avoid implying causality between race and life circumstance.


The term urban can factually describe a particular living situation,

for example, urban poverty versus rural poverty.

However, as a euphemism for slums, crime, or race,

the use of the term urban is inaccurate, outdated, and offensive.


Such use is inaccurate and outdated

because city neighborhoods have been steadily changing.

Urban renewal and gentrification have brought new residents

and assets to city centers.

Urban poverty still exists, but its current manifestation doesn’t match the stereotypes of decay, gang violence, and drug culture built around news stories and images from the 1970s and 1980s.


Even more offensive is the inaccurate substitution of urban

to mean Black when not referring to city dwellers.

If two cowboys get into a fist fight in a rural honky-tonk, and if one of them is white and one is Black, the reporting of that story should in no way refer to one of those men as urban .

Even accurate use of the word urban may raise troubling racial issues.

If someone who authentically claims an urban identity

creates a line of clothing and markets it to suburban consumers,

is calling that clothing urban acceptable?

Does the Grammy for Best Urban Contemporary Album promote recognition of R & B fusion artists, or does it mean that there are two separate but equal Grammy Awards for Album of the Year?


It should be clear

whether one is talking about race (Black civil rights leaders),

poverty (educational opportunities for low socioeconomic status students),

or geography (urban food insecurity and rural hunger).


While the terms urban or inner-city

can evoke one specific minority experience in the United States,

they should not be used interchangeably

with racial identity words like Black or African American.

Nor should suburban be used indiscriminately

to reference white America.

Each of these circumstances and identities is a mix of class and geography, albeit with strong racial associations.

The terms urban and suburban should therefore

be used mindfullyand only when evoking

all aspects of those specific American experiences.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

The Suburbs vs. the Urbs

Given that most of the common words in our language

beginning sub- tend to have meanings concerned with “beneath”

(as in subterranean and submarine)

orless than” (as with subpar),

you would be forgiven for assuming that

the suburbs were so namedbecause of their location below,

or their status as less than, their urban counterparts.

Not so, however:

sub-may have other meanings at the beginning of a word;

in this case, it indicates not depth or inferiority, but proximity.

In other words, the suburbs are a region close to the urbs.

Is urbs an English word?

Yes; it is rarely used, but it refers typically to a city,

particularly when distinguished from a suburb.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Choose the Right Synonym for urbane

SUAVE, URBANE, DIPLOMATIC, BLAND, SMOOTH, POLITIC

mean pleasantlytactful and well-mannered.

SUAVE suggests a specific ability to deal with others easily and without friction.

a suave public relations coordinator

URBANE implies high cultivation and poise coming from wide social experience.

an urbane traveler

DIPLOMATIC stresses an ability to deal with ticklish situations tactfully.

a diplomatic negotiator

BLAND emphasizes mildness of manner and absence of irritating qualities.

a bland master of ceremonies

SMOOTH suggests often a deliberately assumed suavity.

POLITIC implies shrewd as well as tactful and suave handling of people.

a cunningly politic manager

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

When Should You Use urbane?

City slickersand country folk have long debated

whether life is better in town or in the wide open spaces,

and urbane is a term that springs from the throes of that debate.

The word traces back to Latin urbs, meaning "city,"

and in its earliest English uses

urbane was synonymous with its close relative urban

("of, relating to, characteristic of, or constituting a city").

Urbane developed its modern sense of savoir faire

from the belief (no doubt fostered by city dwellers)

that living in the city made one more

suave and polished than did leading a rural life.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Trend Watch

Urbane

A national vocab test showed that most eighth graders don't know ...

When:

Lookups spiked on December 6, 2012.

Why:

News reports about a national vocabulary test revealed that

a majority of eighth graders didn't knowwhat the word urbane means.

Administered by the U.S. Department of Education, the test used vocabulary at appropriate reading levels for fourth-, eighth-, and twelfth-graders. The average eighth grade score was 265 out of 500.

Urbane means "notably polite or polished in manner."

It comes from the Latin urbanus, which meant both "of the city"

- the origin of the English word urban - and "elegant and sophisticated," qualities associated with city living in ancient times.

Because urbane was looked up frequently after this news was released,

it's probable that eighth-graders aren't the only people who don't know what the word means.

One reason, perhaps, is that the word isn't used as much as it once was

(as this chart shows)

- either because urbanity is in decline,

or simply because words like sophisticated are used more often instead.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Words at Play

Urbane

Definition:

notably polite or polished in manner

Example:

"Inside the narrow dining room is a mix of rustic and urbane, with dish towels for napkins, brick walls hung with abstract paintings and light bulbs hooded by vaguely laboratorial shades." - Ligaya Mishan, New York Times, October 31, 2013

About the Word:

Would you rather be urbane or suave?

Here's the difference:

urbane typically suggests

composed cultivationand wide social experience,

while suave tends to emphasize smooth frictionless dealings.

Urbane and urban both come from the Latin urbanus,

meaning "of the city; refined."

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expressions

urban & urbane

Each of these words is derived from a Latin term

referring to a city, but they have distinctmeaning and pronunciations.

Urban (UHR-bun) means

“pertaining to a city,”

“characteristic of city life.”

Urbane (uhr-BAYN) has a meaning of

“reflecting elegance or sophistication,”

“polished,”

“suave.”

“He came from the country and never adjusted to urban life.”

“This woman appears well dressed, poised, and urbane.”

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