ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด U – upward & upwards
แนะนำการใช้ ตามที่ส่วนใหญ่ใช้ แต่ละท้องถิ่น
ความหมาย อาจผันแปร ตาม ตำแหน่ง/หน้าที่ ในประโยค
ออกเสียง upward = ‘UHP-werd’
ออกเสียง upwards = ‘UHP-werds’
ออกเสียง upmost = ‘UHP-mohst’ – British = ‘UHP-muhst’
Collins COBUILD English Usage
upwards & upward
In British English, if you move or look upwards,
you move or look towards a place that is higher
than the place where you are.
She stretched upwards to the curtain pole.
He had happened to look upwards.
Upwards is always an adverb.
Speakers of American English
usually say upward instead of 'upwards'.
I began to climb upward over the steepest ground.
In both British and American English, upward is an adjective.
An upward movement or look is one
in which someoneor something moves or looks upwards.
...a quick upward flick of the arm.
He would steal upward glances at the clock.
When upward is an adjective,
you can only use it in front of a noun.
Common Errors In English Usage Dictionary
Upmost & utmost
The word is “utmost,” and is related to words like “utter,”
as in “The birthday party was utter chaos.”
“Upmost” may seem logical,
but it’s a sure sign of a person
who knows spoken English better than written English.
'Utmost' vs 'Upmost': Utter Confusion Resolved
What does "ut" mean anyway? We explain.
What to Know
Utmost describes something that is of the highest degree,
and often modifies importance and respect.
Upmost describes something in the highest possible position
both literallyand figuratively.
Upmost is usually used mistakenly in place of utmost,
as up occurs much more commonly in the language.
They are also both adjectives with slightly similar meanings, which we will discuss.
Given these similarities, the words are occasionally confused in writing and speech. Specifically, upmost is mistakenly used in contexts in which utmost is wanted.
This is somewhat understandable
—though we don't endorse the misuse
—since "up" is a much more common sound picture than "ut."
If you have found yourself using "upmost importance" or "upmost respect,"
this article should be upmost on your "things to do" list.
Helping readers differentiate utmost from upmost is our utmost concern.
'Utmost' Meaning and Usage
Utmost communicates that
something is of the greatest or highestin degree, number, or amount.
In this sense, utmost is commonly found modifying words like importance, concern, and respect, among others.
Apply these chemicals with utmost care, because any herbicide that will kill poison ivy also will kill any other plant it touches.
— Beth Botts, The Chicago Tribune, 16 July 2020
The public can be assured that under her stewardship, the office will be led with the utmost integrity and competence.
— Douglas M. Parker, quoted in The New York Times, 10 July 2020
Utmost also indicates that something is, literally or figuratively, farthest or most distant—or that it is outmost. (Utmost, incidentally, traces back to Old English ū tmest, a superlative adjective formed from the adverb ū t, meaning "out.")
We know that it is a three stage rocket that's capable, maybe, if they have it and if they can make it work, of going possibly very far—the utmost range, we believe, would be as much as 9,000 miles.
— Tom Foreman, quoted on CNN, 15 Dec. 2010
No matter how trained, confident, or practiced a runner is with managing pain, pushing oneself to the utmost limit still hurts—a lot.
— Zach Batt, The DePauw (DePauw University), 2 Oct. 2018
Additionally, utmost is used as a noun
to refer to the highest attainable point or degree,
as in "The hikers pushed themselves to the utmost to get to camp before dark" or"The inn provides the utmost in comfort and luxury."
The noun also often occurs in phrases such as
"to do one's utmost" or "to try one's utmost," meaning "to do one's best."
'Upmost' Meaning and Usage
The adjective upmost is a combination
meaning "most" or "to the greatest or highest degree."
It denotes being situated in the highest or most prominent position
and is synonymous with uppermost.
It gets no sweeter than a penthouse-type vista, so you can imagine my surprise when I found myself stationed on an upmost floor in a condo-suite, showcasing a 180 degree panorama of the Atlantic.
— Regina Lynch Hudson, The Atlanta Tribune, 1 September 2015
Upmost is thus the correct word for describing things
in the highest position where, on the other hand,
utmost signifies the greatest degree or amount of something.
Upmost is also sometimes applied figuratively
to suggest that something is ranked highestespecially in the mind.
The safety of the children was upmost in her mind.
The economy remains upmost in the minds of voters.
In its dictionary sense, upmost is infrequently used in current English; uppermost is preferred. But upmost is frequently used as a mistaken spelling of utmost in its adjective and noun forms.
Carter said two issues of upmost concern are the city-parish's traffic woes and litter issues.
— The Advocate (Baton Rouge, Louisiana), 24 July 2020
Forest Supervisor Kelly Russell is appreciative that community members and visitors were supportive of the restrictions and did their upmost in preventing human-caused fires.
— The Grant County Beat (Silver City, New Mexico), 10 July 2012
The mix-upof upmost for utmost was part of a 2017 episode of the TV sitcom New Girl.
In the show, students of the character Jess give her a gift card
(secretly bought by Nick) as a present.
One of the students then says that they have the "upmost" respect for her.
The use of upmost catches Jess' attention and she calls out Nick.
Here's the dialogue that ensues on the two words.
JESS: "Upmost"? There's only one person I know that says "upmost." It's "utmost."
NICK: "Utmost"? "Utmost." Agree to disagree. But the good news is my writer's block is gone, and that is thanks to you. You always come through for me, Jess, to the upmost.
JESS: I assure you, it's "utmost."
NICK: What's an "ut"?
JESS: Come on, you're a writer.
NICK: It's "up." Up to the most. Not ut to the most. I assure you.
JESS: Okay, sweetie.
NICK: You didn't come in here and say, "Thanks for putting them ut to it." I would've laughed you out of here. What is an "ut"?
Uppermost is also a word that has been erroneously used to mean "utmost." This occurrence is seldom, but evidence can be furnished.
Professional child actors will not be asked to appear on Kids Say the Darnest Things. The casting will be across the country (and not just in Los Angeles). And diversity will be of the uppermost importance.
— Marc Berman, Forbes, 5 Aug. 2019
utmost is the adjective that indicates
that something is of the greatest degree, number,
or amount or farthest or most distant.
Upmost is the adjective for conveying
that something is at the highest or in the most prominent position.
As its spelling suggests, upmost describes things that are up high.
This notion of being the highest may be confused by some with being the greatest, which, in turn, leads to erroneous use of upmost when utmost is called for.
Utmost is the correct word in phrases like "utmost importance"
or "utmost respect."
Dictionary of Problem Words and Expressions
upward & upwards
As an adverb or adjective,
upward means “toward
a higher amount, degree, place, level, or position”: