ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด P – point & point in time & point of view
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ออกเสียง point = ‘POINT’
First vs. Second vs. Third Person Points of View
When we think of point of view in the general sense,
we tend to think about someone’s attitude or opinion of things:
their likes or dislikes, their focus, their idea of the world.
Point of view is unique, right?
After all, everyone has their own perspective on things.
When talking about literary or narrative point of view,
though, there aren’t nearly as many options.
In fact, there are only five different types of narrative point of view:
- third-person omniscient
- third-person limited
- third-person objective
These points of view aren’t as unique,
but they can be helpful in creating different effects in works of literature.
We’ve broken down the five main types of narrative points of view for you.
It’s amazing the thousands of stories authors can create with just these options.
When to use first-personpoint of view
Human beings can be a bit … selfish.
That might be why first–person point of view is all about
I, me, and mine. We like to put ourselves first.
All joking aside, first-person point of view is
when the story is told from an individual point of view
describing something that is happening to them.
The key pronouns for first-person point of view are:
Some popular books written in first-person point of view
are the Hunger Games series, To Kill a Mockingbird, and Bridget Jones’s Diary.
Here are a few examples of first-person narration:
- On my way to the grocery store, I saw a lone glove lying in the snowbank. Wondering if it belonged to someone nearby, I picked it up and put it in my pocket.
- I felt the track underneath my feet. It was dry and rocky. I could hear the crowd cheering. I was going to win!
- My friends were all down by the river by the time I turned up with my fishing rod and a bucket. They teased me for always being the last one to arrive.
As you can see from these examples,
first-person narration helps the reader relate to the character.
As the reader, you become aware ofeverything happening in the story from the character’s perspective.
It’s a powerful approach, but it can be limiting
if you are trying to build a big world, like in science fiction or epics.
When to use second-person point of view
Second-person point of view is all about you.
No, we aren’t trying to butter you up.
What we mean is that second-person point of view
is a narrative that is told from the reader’s point of view.
The key pronouns forsecond-person point of view are:
It’s generally considered a no-no
to write a novel in only second-person point of view.
More often, poetry or short stories might include bits of second-person point of view.
Just to be clear, second-person point of view isn’t the same thing
as when the author addresses the reader directly.
It’s when you, the reader, seem to become part of the story.
You know, like those old Choose Your Own Adventure books we all read.
Here are a few examples of second-person narrative:
- You walked to the corner, where you heard a telephone ringing in the phone booth. When you picked up the phone, there was no one on the other line.
- You always wanted to win the lottery, but you never thought it would really happen!
- There is something scary about the abandoned amusement park. Do you choose to enter anyway?
Just like the first-person perspective, second-person perspective
can create a story that seems more intimate to the reader.
It really puts them into the story.
Second-person perspective can also create an uncanny, almost alienating, effect.
When to use third-person point of view
If you have read a narrative lately,
it was most likely written in third-person point of view.
In other words, it was not told from the point of view of the narrator or the reader.
The key pronouns for third-person point of view are:
There are three different third-person points of view.
We are going to start with the most common one, third-person omniscient.
Omniscient is a fancy word that means “all-knowing.”
So, third-person omniscient point of view means
that the narrative is told fromthe perspective of a narrator
who knows the thoughts and feelings of many characters in the story.
Sometimes, third-person omniscient point of view
will include the narrator telling the story from multiple characters’ perspectives.
Popular examples of third-person omniscient point of view
are Middlemarch, Anna Karenina, and The Scarlet Letter.
Point of View: It's Personal
First, second, and third person explained
What to Know
In first person point of view
the narrator is a character in the story, dictating events from their perspective
using "I" or "we."
In second person, the reader becomes the main character,
addressed as "you" throughout the story and being immersed in the narrative.
In third person point of view,
the narrator existsoutside of the story and addresses the characters by name
or as "he/she/they" and "him/her/them."
Types of third person perspective are defined by
whether the narrator has access to the thoughts and feelings
of any or all of the characters.
It's all about how you look at it.
When you tell a story,
an important thingto choose is the point of view
that the story should take.
Point of view determines who tells the story,
as well as the relationshipthat the narrator has to the characters in the story.
A story can have a much different feel depending on who is doing the telling.
The main points of view are first person and third person,
with second person appearing less frequently
but still common enough that it gets studied in writing classes.
These are also the terms used to distinguish the personal pronouns.
The pronouns I and we are first-person pronouns;
they refer to the self.
The pronoun you, used for both singular and plural antecedents,
is the second-person pronoun, the person who is being addressed.
The third person pronouns—he, she, it, they
—refer to someone or something being referred to apart from the speaker
or the person being addressed.
Narratives are often identified asfirst, second, or third person
based on the kinds of pronouns they utilize.
First Person Point of View
In first-person narration, the narrator is a person in the story,
telling the story from their own point of view.
The narration usually utilizes the pronoun I
(or we, if the narrator is speaking as part of a group).
The character who tells the story might be in the middle of the action
or more of a character who observes the action from the outer limits,
but in either case you are getting that character’s recounting of what happens.
It also means that impressions and descriptions
are colored by thatcharacter’s opinions, mood, past experiences,
or even their warped perceptions of what they see and hear.
There was no possibility of taking a walk that day.
We had been wandering, indeed, in the leafless shrubbery an hour in the morning;
but since dinner (Mrs. Reed, when there was no company, dined early)
the cold winter wind had brought with it clouds so sombre,
and a rain so penetrating, that further outdoor exercise was now out of the question.
I was glad of it: I never liked long walks,
especially on chilly afternoons:
dreadful to me was the coming home in the raw twilight,
with nipped fingers and toes, and a heart saddened by the chidings of Bessie, the nurse, and humbled by the consciousness of my physical inferiority to Eliza, John, and Georgiana Reed. — Charlotte Brontë, Jane Eyre, 1847
In Jane Eyre , the narration is provided by the story’s title character, a governess.
The information shared comes from her memories and impressions
—of the weather, her knowledge of Mrs. Reed’s dining habits,
and her dread at receiving a lecture from Nurse Bessie.
We are likewise shielded from information that Jane doesn’t know.
Many classic works of fiction feature characters made memorable
by their first-person voices:
The Catcher in the Rye (Holden Caulfield), The Handmaid's Tale (Offred), or To Kill a Mockingbird (Scout Finch).
In some stories, such as in F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby,
the first person narrator (Nick Carraway) is an observer of the character around whom the story is centered (Jay Gatsby).
Second-person narration a little-used technique of narrative
in which the action is driven by a character ascribed to the reader,
one known as you.
The reader is immersed into the narrative as a character involved in the story.
The narrator describes what "you" do
and lets you into your own thoughts and background.
The most well-known piece of fiction that employs second-person narration
might be Jay McInerney’s novel Bright Lights, Big City.
At the subway station you wait fifteen minutes on the platform for a train.
Finally a local, enervated by graffiti, shuffles into the station.
You get a seat and hoist a copy of the New York Post.
The Post is the most shameful of your several addictions.
— Jay McInerney, Bright Lights, Big City, 1984
You will also find second-person narration used in
the "Choose Your Own Adventure" style of books popular withyounger readers,
in which readers determine where the story goes by which page they turn to next.
Allowing the reader to "be" the central character in
the story provides an immersive reading experience,
enhancing what is at stake for thecharacter and reader.
Third Person Point of View
In third-person narration,
the narrator exists outside the events of the story,
and relates the actions of the characters by
referring to their names orby the third-person pronouns he, she, or they.
Third-person narration can be further classified into
several types: omniscient, limited, and objective.
Third Person Omniscient
Omniscient means "all-knowing,"
and likewise an omniscient narrator knows every character’s
thoughts, feelings, and motivations
even if that character doesn’t reveal any of those things to the other characters.
Little Women by Louisa May Alcott
serves as a good example of third-person omniscient narration:
"Christmas won't be Christmas without any presents," grumbled Jo, lying on the rug.
"It's so dreadful to be poor!" sighed Meg, looking down at her old dress.
"I don't think it's fair for some girls to have plenty of pretty things, and other girls nothing at all," added little Amy, with an injured sniff.
"We've got Father and Mother, and each other," said Beth contentedly from her corner.
The four young faces on which the firelight shone brightened at the cheerful words, but darkened again as Jo said sadly, "We haven't got Father, and shall not have him for a long time." She didn't say "perhaps never," but each silently added it, thinking of Father far away, where the fighting was. — Louisa May Alcott, Little Women, 1868
The story is not told from the point of view of Meg, Jo, Beth, or Amy,
but from someone who is observing the four sisters as they talk to one another.
Each character is therefore referred to by their names
or the third-person pronoun she.
The narrator does not exist as a character in the story,
and the girls do not acknowledge the narrator’s presence.
However, the narrator is omniscient,
which means that they know what the characters are thinking.
This is demonstrated in the last line of the excerpt,
when the girls silently ponder the thought of their father never returning from the war.
Third Person Limited
In third-person limitednarration,
the narrator still exists outside the events of the story,
but does not know the motivations or thoughts of all the characters.
Rather, one character is the driver of the story,
and the reader is given a closer peek into that character’s psyche than the others.
J. K. Rowling utilizes third-person limited narration in the Harry Potter novels.
Even though the narrator is not Harry, and Harry is referred to as 'he,'
the reader is allowed into Harry's thoughts
—what he is wondering without saying out loud.
We are also, like Harry, left uncertain about what other characters arethinking:
Three days later, the Dursleys were showing no sign of relenting, and Harry couldn't see any way out of his situation.
He lay on his bed watching the sun sinking behind the bars on the window and wondered miserably what was going to happen to him.
What was the good of magicking himself out of his room if Hogwarts would expel him for doing it? Yet life at Privet Drive had reached an all-time low. Now that the Dursleys knew they weren't going to wake up as fruit bats, he had lost his only weapon. Dobby might have saved Harry from horrible happenings at Hogwarts, but the way things were going, he'd probably starve to death anyway. — J. K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, 1999
In third-person objectivenarration,
the narrator reports the events that take place without knowing the motivations
or thoughts of any of the characters.
We know little about what drives them until we hear them speak or observe their actions.
The resulting tone is often matter-of-fact,
not colored by any opinions or commentary,
nor of knowledge of what takes place outside the scene.
The people of the village began to gather in the square, between the post office and the bank, around ten o'clock; in some towns there were so many people that the lottery took two days and had to be started on June 25th.
But in this village, where there were only about three hundred people, the whole lottery took less than two hours, so it could begin at ten o'clock in the morning and still be through in time to allow the villagers to get home for noon dinner. — Shirley Jackson, "The Lottery," 1948
The American Heritage® Student Science Dictionary,
A geometric object having no dimensions and no property
other than its location.
The intersection of two lines is a point.
Farlex Trivia Dictionar
Point = "Sharp end" isthe etymological notion underlying point,
from Latin pungere, "pierce, prick."
See also related terms for pierce.
Collins COBUILD English Usage
A point is something you say that expresses an idea, opinion, or fact.
That's a very good point.
I want to make a quick point about safety.
A point is also an aspect or detail of something,
or a part of a person's character.
The two books have many points in common.
One of his best points is his confidence.
2. 'the point'
The point is the most importantfact in a situation.
The point is that everyone is welcome to join.
I'll come straight to the point. You didn't get the job.
The point of doing something is the reason for doing it.
What was the point of asking him when you knew he'd say no?
I don't see the point of learning all this boring stuff.
3. 'no point'
If you say that there is no point in doing something,
you mean that it has no purpose or will not achieve anything.
There's no point in talking to you if you won't listen.
There was not much point in thinking about it.
Don't say 'there is no point to do' something
or 'it is no point in doing' something.
4. 'full stop'
Don't refer to the punctuation mark (.)
which comes at the end of a sentence as a'point'.
In British English, itis called a full stop.
In American English, it is called a period.
Collins COBUILD English Usage
1. 'point of view'
When you are considering one aspect of a situation,
you can say that you are considering it from a particular point of view.
From a practical point of view it is quite easy.
The movie was very successful from a commercial point of view.
A person's point of view is their general attitude to something,
or the way they feel about something.
We understand your point of view.
I tried to see things from Frank's point of view.
2. 'view' and 'opinion'
Don't refer to what someone thinks orbelieves about a particular subject
as their 'point of view'.
Leo's view is that there is not enough evidence.
If you want my honest opinion, I don't think it will work.
View is most commonly used in the plural.
We are happy to listen to your views.
He was sent to jail for his political views.
You talk about someone's opinions or views on or about a subject.
He always asked for her opinions on his work.
I have strong views about education.
You can use expressions such as in my opinion or in his view
to show that something is an opinion, and may not be a fact.
He's not doing a very good job in my opinion.
These changes, in his view, would be very damaging.
Common Errors In English Usage Dictionary
Point & point in time
“The pointbeing is that” is redundant;
say just “the point is that” or “the point being that.”
point in time
Thisredundancy became popular because
it was used byastronauts seeking to distinguish precisely
between a point in time and a point in space.
Since most people use the expression in contexts
where there is no ambiguity,
it makes more sense to say simply “at this point” or “at this time.”
Dictionary of Problem Words and Expression
Point of view & viewpoint & standpoint & point in time
Each of these terms means
- (1) “a specified manner of appraising or judging” and
- (2) “an opinion, judgment, or attitude”:
“From my point of view (or viewpoint or standpoint) your suggestion is unworkable.”
All three expressions are standard.
Viewpoint, is not recommend by some linguist
because it is considered an awkward shortening of point of view,
but this objection has been overruled by usage.
A few purists have pointed out that standpoint is incorrect
since one cannot stand on a point,
a stupid comment sincepoint here does not mean a physical point
but a mental position.
The only possible objection to any of these terms
is that they are tiresomely overused and often are unnecessary.
“From the moral point of view” says nothing that morally doesn’t.”
“From where I stand” is mere wordage.
Use any of the three terms sparingly and avoid meaninglessness.