2020-11-30 Ref.: www.gotoknow.org #
ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด P – podium & lectern & dais & rostrum
แนะนำการใช้ ตามที่ส่วนใหญ่ใช้ แต่ละท้องถิ่น
ความหมาย อาจผันแปร ตาม ตำแหน่ง/หน้าที่ ในประโยค
ออกเสียง podium = ‘POH-dee-uhm’
ออกเสียง lectern = ‘LEK-tern’
ออกเสียง Dais = ‘DEY-is’ or ‘DEYS’
ออกเสียง Rostrum =’ROS-truhm’
What does rostrum mean?
Rostrum most commonly means a kind of platform forpublic speaking.
A pulpit can also be called a rostrum.
Rostrum also has a few very different meanings.
In biology, a rostrum is a beak or beaklike part.
This sense of the word was extended to refer to
the beaklike projection on the prow of a ship,
especially one on an ancient Roman warship
that was used for ramming enemy ships.
The ancient Romanssometimes decorated columns and platforms
with the rostrums of captured ships (or with representations of them).
This led to the use of the word rostrum to refer to a speaking platform.
Rostral is also used in the context of anatomy,
especially of animals,
to describe things thathave or resemble a beak or snout.
The correct plural formof rostrum can be rostrums or rostra.
I’m always nervous before a big speech,
but I become calm as soon as I step onto the rostrum.
Where does rostrum come from?
The first records of the word rostrum in English come fromthe 1500s.
It comes fromthe Latin rōstrum, meaning “snout,” “bill,” “beak of a bird,”
or “ship’s prow”
(when used in its plural form, rōstra, it referred to a speaker’s platform,
a reference to the fact that this platform in the Roman forum
was decorated with the prows of captured ships).
The word rostrum is used to mean slightly
different things indifferent contexts and places,
such as in a theater or an orchestra venue.
In a church, the rostrum is the pulpit.
In any case, rostrums are usually raised in some way
so that the audience can see the speaker.
Farlex Trivia Dictionary.
A lectern is the
stand on which the speaker's notes are placed,
the podiumis the platform on which the speaker and lectern stand,
a dais is a platform for several people, and
a rostrumis a platform for one or more.
A Podium Is the Same Thing as a Lectern
We'd say it from a podium if we had to
We are very sorry to inform those of you
who care about this matter that the word podium
can truly and without embarrassment refer to what is also called a lectern.
But let's back up a bit. Podium in its original English use was an architectural term.
The word first referred to a low wall serving as a foundation or terrace wall;
one early kind of podium was the kind that went around
the arena of ancient amphitheaters and served as a base for the tiers of seats.
The word comes from the Latin word podium, and traces back to the Greek word podion meaning "base."
Podion in turn comes from the Greek pod- (or pous),
meaning "foot," which we see in the word podiatrist.
There are plenty of people who would like to see
the ideas of "base" and "foot" preserved in all modern uses of podium,
which is why we have an apology to make:
the word podium sometimes refers not to a thing you stand on
—that is, a thing that supports your feet, a base
—but to a thing you stand behind and use to place notes, a book,
or whatever else you're glancing down at as you address or read to a group of people.
You know the object:
it usually has a slanted top surface and a place to stow a bottle of water or two underneath. It might go all the way to the floor or sit on a table.
If you're frowning deeply as you read this
you likely know the object as a "lectern"
(a word from Latin legere, meaning "to read").
And it is indeed a lectern.
But lecterns are also sometimes referred to as podiums
(or podia, if you want to use a plural that nods to the word's Latin history),
at least in North America.
And this has been true since around the middle of the 20th century.
The apology we made a couple paragraphs above is, of course, a little facetious.
An apology implies an admission of error that we simply cannot make here in good faith.
We have nothing to do with an expansion of the word podium to cover lecterns.
Words frequently take on other meanings over time,
and it is our mandate to report those meanings if and when they become established.
Podium is in fact used asa synonym of lectern in published, edited prose by skilled writers. And we'd say it from a podium if we had to.
This week saw the first two debates of the myriad candidates
for the Democratic nominee for the presidential election.
This, of course, meant that the great political and social issues of our age
were being hotly debated.
And, of course, no such debate would be complete without a chorus of folks
exclaiming that the thing you just called a podium
is in fact, properly referred to as a lectern.
To the podium absolutists,
a lectern is the thing which holds a book,
and which political candidates at a debate stand behind;
a podium is properly the thing that is stood on.
It matters not a whit that the people on the television are calling
the lectern a podium,
just as it matters not that everyone and their cousin calls it a podium
… actually, wait a minute, for it matters very much.
If a significant number of people are using this word
podium to refer to the thing also known as a lectern,
and they continueto do this for many- many, decades,
then these words will become synonymous
(orwill at least share this one sense).
Podium does still have othermeanings not shared by lectern
(such as“a dais” and “the masonry under the stylobate of a temple”).
Common Errors In English Usage Dictionary
podium & lectern
a podiumis a raised platform on which you stand to give a speech;
the piece of furniture on which you place your notes
and behind which
you stand is a lectern.