"…I distinguish between four types of change: modifications (which are consistent with the existing transcendental regime), weak singularities (or novelties with no strong existential consequences), strong singularities(which imply an important existential change but whose consequences remain measurable) and, finally, events (strong singularities whose consequences are virtually infinite)."
-- Alan Badiou, "Beyond Formalisation"
*modification = top down movement ; weak singularities = bottom up movement
Events is the non-reverse changing process coming with the "better" or "worse" paradigm (better/worse are subjective, it should be instead spelling with "the next degree",) hence it's only a genuine change. Thinking about wedding and divorce to changing status of life. (Divorce is not a reverse of wedding, but another status of life. It's about "time" dimension, time can't be reverse. It's one way direction, aka "arrow of time.")
1. This article conforms with Four-dimensional Euclidean spacetime or (Minkowski space) / Affline space / and Four-dimensional space) , Manifold. (for the real 4D and beyond please check this article instead.)
2. In physics, three dimensions of space and one of time is the accepted norm. However, there are theories that attempt to unify the four fundamental forces by introducing more dimensions. Most notably, superstring theory requires 10 spacetime dimensions (superstring theory), and originates from a more fundamental 11-dimensional theory tentatively called M-theory which subsumes five previously distinct superstring theories.
3. There is actually no time! There is a temporal realm called the Planck scale, where even attoseconds drag by like eons. It marks the edge of known physics, a region where distances and intervals are so short that the very concepts of time and space start to break down. Planck time—the smallest unit of time that has any physical meaning—is 10-43 second, less than a trillionth of a trillionth of an attosecond. Beyond that? Tempus incognito. At least for now.
I accept Hegel's idea that state and government as the reflection of zeitgeist (spirit of time). Actually, nation-state is another solidifying form of civilization; we have different forms of civilization. Either "corporate" or "open source community" is another form of "trans-national" organization. Hence, Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) is also another form of state as well. (see The End of the Nation State by Kenichi Ohmae)
It means that future is (1) open-ended, (2) no pre-determination, whether "technological", "spirit", "class", or "economic" , state can strike through the next degree or fall into the the prior degree of paradigm, and (3) the "exit" stage is based on emerging "events", which caused from the contradiction of various forces within the observed "complex system". State (or civilization) needs to answer the question of prosperity (economic rational) and survival (security rational / Raison d'être / reason of being) of itself, and the explanation of self (identity rational)., yet the changing of paradigm may create a contradiction between socio-economic evolvement and identity politics during the process.
exponential order of magnitude
Note: Without the article in Stratfor (Quantum Geopolitics), I may not illustrate the idea in this article in the public. It's too much imaginative, albeit under possible condition and contemporary body of knowledge of human being, similar to Kip Thorne's the Science of Interstellar.
Minecraft world: 64,000 km 6.4 x 10(7) meters: stretching from the coordinates +32,000,000 to -32,000,000, the Minecraft world spares a total of 64,000 kilometers. This world has approximately 130 quadrillion blocks in it.
Normally, problem on the existing paradigm will be resolved within the higher paradigm, but it will also create much much more complex problems within the new paradigm. Each gap of qualitative condition on each paradigm may be measured in order of magnitude (power of 10.) To build the self-sustainable system is an emergence of complex system with proper ecosystem, including but not limit to political system, economic system, knowledge system, technological system, and etc. It might be achieved by "strong singularities," building various complex systems within the same paradigm. For example, "modernity" gave birth to liberal-democratic system, fascist system, and communist system, the functional one so far is liberal-democratic system. (see the "parallel world" projected the dominated "Nazi vs Japanese imperial" world, The Man in the High Castle.)
normal 3D dimension (width, height, breadth) vs 4D dimension (3D + time, or continuous 3Ds). Tree is the 1st dimensional creature. It can live only in 1st dimension, but it can utilize 2nd dimension by creating fruit and weed and hoping for the wind or animal carrying to different position in 2D terrain.
Dog is the 2D creature to travel across the land. Bird is the 3D creature to travel through the air. Human being is natural 2D creature, but with brain, he/she can build airplane to travel in 3D and he/she can recognize and utilize time as another 4th dimension.
This picture displays the connection of space-time of multiple 3Ds status, therefore 4th dimension.
Although we don't move in any direction, we are still moving. No, I don't talk about the movement of the earth on the trajectory orbit around the sun nor a movement of solar system in the Milky Way galaxy. I mean a traveling through the time. Therefore, space and time generate forth dimension. I think we can imagine it. But what is the fifth dimension and beyond?
At the end of this clip, it mentions Dr Leonard Susskind. His book about a holy war on proposing black hole theory against Dr Stephen Hawking, the black hole war is also very interesting.
For those who wanna see interstella.
(From figure on the left side) Imagine the behavior of a dog as following a path on the upper behavior surface beginning at point C and moving, on a path of increasing rage, toward B. While launching an attack, the dog sees a man with a large stick. The dog’s behavior then moves from point B towards point A.
The beauty of this mathematical model, the beauty of Thom’s catastrophe theory, lies in the way it models, on a continuous surface, the discontinuity in behavior we observe when we see the dog rapidly shift from fight to flight. Moving on the behavior surface from B to A, the dog will enter the intrinsically unstable area between the dark lines on the lower ‘‘control surface’’ labeled ‘‘bifurcation set.’’ Mapping this shift on the behavior surface, it is easy to see where the path from B to A will ‘‘fall’’ in the Y-dimension from the ‘‘attacking’’ plane of the behavior surface to the ‘‘retreating’’ plane. Far to the left on the model, the only y-values available for x, z, coordinates are low values on the ‘‘fear’’ surface. For higher values of y, x must be much higher (further out to the right).
Life in the fourth era of time is like standing at point C looking at a Utopian point B even as one sees the distinct possibility of disaster at point A. Our hopes taken alone hide fears of disaster. Our fears taken alone eclipse the optimism of our hopes. The oscillation we experience as we toggle back and forth between brave optimism and knowing pessimism is enough to induce a sense of irony. Or at least a call for alternative scenarios if we need help in handling multiple futures at once. (Figure on the right side)
Facing the fold: from the eclipse of Utopia to the restoration of hope by Jay Ogilvy
In principle, elite bargaining takes place within limits set through democratic institutions and processes. But these limits are often broad, popular participation and control are not always robust, and the political and bureaucratic elites posses great discretion. Despite the limits on popular control. Far from it. Periodic elections compel them to keep a ready eye on popular opinion. In addition, as they arrive at decisions the political and bureaucratic elites mutually influence and check one another. Elite bargaining has its own system of mutual checks and balances. To the extent that elected representatives participate in the bargaining process, they are a channel through which popular desires, goals, and values enter into governmental decisions. Political and bureaucratic elites in democratic countries are powerful, far more powerful than ordinary citizens cane; but they are not despots.
-- On Democracy, Robert A. Dahl, Yale University Press, 2000. pp. 113-114.
“Politics is the art of the possible, the attainable — the art of the next best”
― Otto von Bismarck
In the 1860s, Satsuma tended to take a moderate position towards maintenance of the status quo, whereas Chōshū had become the center of an uprising aimed at overthrowing the government. Through the mediation of Sakamoto Ryōma of Tosa Domain (present day Kochi Prefecture), Satsuma military leaders Saigō Takamori and Okubo Toshimichi were brought together with Katsura Kogorō (Kido Takayoshi) of Chōshū. Although the two domains were traditionally fierce enemies, their leaders agreed that the time was right for a change, and agreed in principle to assist one another in the event that either would be attacked by a third party. Also, Chōshū desperately needed modern weapons, but had very limited contacts with the western powers. Satsuma, on the other hand, had developed a substantial arms trade with Great Britain via Thomas Glover, a Scottish merchant affiliated with Jardine Matheson. At the suggestion of Sakamoto, Saigo helped broker an agreement to supply Chōshū with the weapons it needed to fight the Tokugawa shogunate.
The man's life is limited. He will eventually die one day. At its most bleak, death is the final termination of all activity, of time and life as such. Whatever he did will be buried by the sand of the time. Therefore he invented the civilization to encapsulate his dream and his identity carrying on across the time.
[how we can "reproduce" culture? via language.]
Can we think without language?
The history of culture and the history of language move along parallel lines. Indeed, ‘the superficial connections’ between ‘speech’ and ‘other historical processes are so close that it needs to be shaken free of them if we are to see it in its own right. “Language” is thus an 'acquired “cultural” function’ rather than ‘an inherent biological function’ with and ‘instinctive basis’. ‘Eliminate society’ and ‘the individual’ will never learn to talk, that is, to communicate ideas according to the traditional system of a particular society’.
Would our thinking have the similar fundamental / pattern?
According to Everett the statement that Pirahã is a finite language without embedding and without recursion presents a challenge for proposals by Noam Chomsky and others concerning universal grammar—on the grounds that if these proposals are correct, all languages should show evidence of recursive (and similar) grammatical structures.
The dream and the identity of the civilization will be solidified in the soul of the nation, thus it can't be changed, neither can be altered. It's taboo by nature in the first place. Sometimes, the soul of the nation will be represented as a symbol in the national flag and national anthem.
See the clash of western ideologies between German national anthem and French national anthem (La Marseillaise)
Through this, it will build trust among the people of the nation. Trust is like a candle to light a clear path, to encourage on moving forward, and be a solid bond between the star light on the sky and the moral law within.
State-nation is a solidifying of civilization, in Hobbes's definition, a leviathan, a legendary monster, monopolies all kind of violence. It doesn't how modern it looks, it can unleash violence if necessary. "Non est potestas Super Terram quae Comparetur ei" (There is no power on Earth to be compared to him)
On another word, human being is building civilization as 4th dimensional creature to travel through time and is immortal. State or leviathan is the political architecture to solidify civilization as 4th dimensional creature. Politics is therefore the needed mechanism to enable an evolution of civilization.
Fusing Political science and Physics: "spacetime"
Space-time has been distorted in gravitational field displays in 2 dimensional vector. (Deleted 1 dimension, time has embedded with space, thus space-time grid.) Space = 3D; Space-Time = 4D. Animal can recognize 3D but limited (or cannot) recognition of 4D. Human's intelligence can recognize and utilize 4D, and can building 4th dimensional creature via solidifying civilization.
GPS satellites work because they adjust for similar bending of spacetime to coordinate with systems on Earth.
This space-time grid is very important, because it illustrates that time is not absolute, but it depends and sticks to space (hence "space-time") and can be bended by both "speed" and "gravitational force". For example elapsed time between GPS satellite and terrain on earth, see Time dilation.
Each 4D space-time universe has been represented in 2D brane (in details it has been sandwiched with protected Ads branes.) There are many branes out there, thus multiverse. The dimension contains multiverse called 5th dimension. Everything in 5th dimension is estimated by mathematics and physics theory only. We have no thorough understanding yet. But I think the advanced "civilization" can understand and utilize the 5th dimension on their purpose. Perhaps the level IV civilization will have enough evolution to do so.
What's level IV civilization?
We can categorize civilization by ability to use technology and to consume energy. The Kardashev scale / Four level or four types of civilization, i.e. Type II is "A civilization capable of harnessing the energy radiated by its own star (for example, the stage of successful construction of a Dyson sphere,) "with energy consumption at ~4x1033 erg/sec."
Type 0 = Birth of civilization (resolving of death/immortal dilemma of human being), from 4,000 B.C. (see Cradle of civilization) until treaty of westphalia and french revolution.
Type 0.5 = Right now, we're marching toward Type 0.5 civilization (Regional government). Henry Kissinger suggested his idea on World order. It's obvious "Type I" civilization whether intentionally or unintentionally thinking.
Nick Bostrom’s table of qualitative categories of risk. Bostrom and Milan M. Ćirković have together edited a book on Global Catastrophic Risks; blog geopolicraticus, and Global Catastrophic Risk institute.
Type II = Stellar or Solar system government (resolving of death/immortal dilemma of planet, or planetary disaster event (i.e. distinction from meteor collision on earth, or super volcano exploding, or warming climate or extreme whether, or man made problem,) or global catastrophic risk. At this level, space colonization may be normal.
By the mid-2030s, I believe we can send humans to orbit Mars and return them safely to Earth. And a landing on Mars will follow. And I expect to be around to see it.
Picture: NASA Z-2 spacesuit
I think space colonization is possible in the near future (Type 1.x civilization or earlier). The space colonization may be Lagrange point colonization, colonization of moon, colonization of Mars (including terraforming of Mars,) colonization of Venus (including terraforming of Venus,) colonization of Mercury, colonization of Asteroids, colonization of Ceres (dwarf planet in Asteroid belt), colonization of Europa (the 4th largest moon of Jupiter), colonization of Titan (the largest moon of Saturn,) colonization of the outer Solar System.
Artist's conception of the interior of a Bernal sphere
The next evolution of space colonization may be possible by space privatization. And create economic ecosystem between Earth, Mars colony and Asteroids colony.
Type III = Interstellar or Galactic government (resolving of death/immortal dilemma of star system or fate star, i.e. Red star, white dwarf, and Supernova.)
Type IV = Intergalactic government (resolving of death/immortal dilemma of galactic system, i.e. galaxy collide)
Sloan Great Wall is the largest structure of the universe? http://home.kias.re.kr/psec/SSGW2014/박창범_LSSs.pdf
See list of the largest cosmic structure.
fate and origin of the universe (theory only no backup experiment yet). Recent study claims the Universe is dying, perhaps within the next 2 billion years in the future. There is no contemporary body of knowledge to survive this level of disaster (perhaps migrating to another multiverse?)
Type V (?) = ??? government (resolving of death/immortal dilemma of universe, aka the ultimate fate of the universe.)
Type VI (?)
Nearby star systems within 65 light year. Perhaps, civilization level 2.x can control it. (Semi-galactic government)
Asimov's galactic empire = level III civilization. Interestingly, there is no level IV civilization (intergalactic empire) in any scifi fiction yet. I yet to find it, or it's beyond the imaginary? But at level III civilization, they may start to control the gigantic black hole at the center of galaxy. At this level, the death of star systems cannot harm the civilization.