ญาณ: ความรู้ A View for Modern World

sr
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From ประมวลศัพท์พุทธศาสตร์(ป.อ. ปยุตฺโต)

ญาณ: ความรู้, ปรีชาหยั่งรู้, ปรีชากำหนดรู้; ญาณ ๓ หมวดหนึ่ง ได้แก่ ๑. อตีตังสญาณ ญาณในส่วนอดีต ๒. อนาคตังสญาณ ญาณในส่วนอนาคต ๓. ปัจจุปปันนังสญาณ ญาณในส่วนปัจจุบัน; อีกหมวดหนึ่ง ได้แก่ ๑. สัจจญาณ หยั่งรู้อริยสัจจ์แต่ละอย่าง ๒. กิจจญาณ หยั่งรู้กิจในอริยสัจจ์ ๓. กตญาณ หยั่งรู้กิจอันได้ทำแล้วในอริยสัจจ์; อีกหมวดหนึ่ง ได้แก่ วิชชา ๓

สัจจญาณ: ปรีชากำหนดรู้ความจริง, ความหยั่งรู้สัจจะ คือ รู้อริยสัจจ์ ๔ แต่ละอย่างตามภาวะที่เป็นจริง ว่านี้ทุกข์ นี้ทุกขสมุทัย เป็นต้น (ข้อ ๑ ในญาณ ๓)

กิจจญาณ: ปรีชากำหนดรู้กิจที่ควรทำ ในอริยสัจจ์ ๔ แต่ละอย่าง คือรู้ว่า ทุกข์ ควรกำหนดรู้ สมุทัย ควรละ นิโรธ ควรทำให้แจ้ง มรรค ควรเจริญ คือควรปฏิบัติ (ข้อ ๒ ในญาณ ๓)

กตญาณ: ปรีชากำหนดรู้ว่าได้ทำกิจเสร็จแล้ว คือ ทุกข์ ควรกำหนดรู้ ได้รู้แล้ว สมุทัย ควรละ ได้ละแล้ว นิโรธ ควรทำให้แจ้งได้ทำให้แจ้งแล้ว มรรค ควรเจริญ ได้เจริญ คือปฏิบัติหรือทำให้เกิดแล้ว (ข้อ ๓ ใน ญาณ ๓)

In Romanized Velthius Pali. we write ~naa.na for ญาณ, sacca for สัจจ , kicca for กิจจ and kata for กต. We see that '~naa.na' is related to 'pariyatti' ปริยัตติ

From Buddhism Terms (Nyanatiloka Bhikkhu)

pariyatti: 'learning the doctrine', the 'wording of the doctrine'. In the 'progress of the disciple' (q.v.), 3 stages may be distinguished: theory, practice, realization, i.e. (1) learning the wording of the doctrine (pariyatti), (2) practising it (paṭipatti), (3) penetrating it (paṭivedha) and realising its goal. (App.).

Let us relook at the 3 ญาณ ~naa.nas. What do they say in 'modern words'.? In a way they form a principle of learning in a loop (until 'all is done') {

สัจจญาณ sacca-~naa.na : know the facts (or truths or data)

กิจจญาณ kicca-~naa.na : know what to do (consider options, choose best solution, plan to act in tasks in stages: to do)

กตญาณ kata-~naa.na : Know what already done (review results, [then goto สัจจญาณ to learn/know new facts and to revise action/solution])

}

The principle is quite clear and can be seen as the 'root' of many (Western and modern) principles. The fact is we had not looked into Buddhist teaching enough.but readily accept new western principles that we barely understand. Had we really looked at the 4 ariya-saccani we would see that we can replace the word ทุกข์ 'dukkha' with another word like problem, need, requirement, or want, the infrastructure the principle of analysis still works effectively. That is we write:

1) What is our problem/need/requirement/want/dukkha

2) What is the cause (of our problem/...)

3) What is our solution (for our problem/...)

4) How do we achieve our solution (maga มรรค)

And we plug in ariya-saccas to our way of learning and presto we have a way ' to learn facts'; we have maga or a model of our 'actions/plan/...' for 'what to do' and applying ariya-saccas again to results we learn 'what is done'.

The principle for learning, working, managing, governing or living in Dhamma is right here and we have known it since we were young. Is it not time we try to apply what we have learned or known for a long time? To life!

บันทึกนี้เขียนที่ GotoKnow โดย  ใน Learners Web



ความเห็น (7)

เขียนเมื่อ 

เป็น บันทึกที่ให้ความรู้ดีดี นะคะ

เขียนเมื่อ 

So thanks Sr. for an analysis about wisdom, but I wonder if what is really meaning of the modern world. I' m trying to see what really is modern world in modern word or meaning. In fact, the word; Panna or ปัญญา has many words, several meanings, that we use in different words. Many words that we should divide into steps, namely; commonly perceiving or perception is knowing from sensual data, for example, sense of the eye, ear and so on. It is knowledge from five senses that all of us and beings ever have.

Second, from the first, then we have all of data, since we were the born babies, in our brain has a lot of data and we can think, feel, realize, analyze and looking into next time, all that they work in a grey brain and finally it comes out to be a mind. Actually we call it as the worldly word that the "mind" has its action as thinking, feeling and sensing. All are in it likes a king of action, however, all depend on the Wisdom as the king of the king.

Third, knowing inside it, the mind, and organizing all of knowledge and controlling the perception, mind by realization in action of mind and all senses. This is the step according to Buddhist way insists it that is a insight way, means the wisdom knows in itself, knower and the known. So the mind doesn't have the power as the wisdom but it must really have it. Therefore, one, inside us, who is beyond the mind is the wisdom because the mind can follow all senses if it does have a special property. The wisdom is the knower that sees and realizes the body, action, time, world and itself. Another way is called epistemology; theory of knowledge.

Here the point for me is what is the modern word in the modern world. Aspect of knowing starts form senses I call it as "see", both eye and in the sight, then it comes to "understand" and finally "realization" or "insight", other says "intuition". All is human knowledge is not from Artificial Intelligence (AI). And absolutely for Buddhist standpoint is the Wisdom is knowing in Body in Mind or knowing in mind of the body. This point that Lord Buddha says only suffering rising, going on and falling that it works inside its place, body and mind.

Thanks again Sr.

เขียนเมื่อ 

หลักธรรมที่เป็นแก่นแท้ของพุทธศาสนาจริงแล้วเป็น ความเป็นจริงตามธรรมชาติแท้ๆ เราสามารถคิดเชื่อมโยง คิดประยุกต์ใช้ในชีวิตได้จริงๆ ได้ทั้งหมด

อย่างอริยสัจสี่ประการที่เป็นหัวใจนั้นถ้าเราเข้าใจและเอามาใช้ก็จะช่วยบรรเทาทุกข์ได้จริงๆ แต่เรา(รวมทั้งดิฉันด้วย)มักขาดสติไปเมื่อทุกข์มาเยือน เมื่อไหร่เรียกสติกลับมาคิดใคร่ครวญได้ทะลุก็จะคลายทุกข์

ไอน์สไตน์เขียนไว้ว่า "หากจะมีศาสนาใดเป็นศาสนาของโลก ศาสนานั้นคือพุทธศาสนา" (จำประโยคจริงๆ ไม่ได้แล้ว แต่แปลความได้ตามที่เขียนนะคะ)

พระสัมมาสัมพุทธเจ้าท่านเป็นทั้งปราชญ์และนักวิทยาศาสตร์ค่ะ

ขอบคุณนะคะที่วิเคราะห์เรื่องนี้ให้อ่าน

เขียนเมื่อ 

Thank you Dr. Ple.

Thank you nui

Youu and I have faith in Buddhist teaching. I also like to apply the Galaamaa-sutta (don't believe because ...), so I don't just say "Trust...(me or Einstein or ...)" but 'Do apply the teaching and discover for oneself if the teaching works.

Thank you ส.รตนภักดิ์ :

I read and thought I would need more time to amswer but I decided to deal with the present in the way I can do rather trying my best. So forgive me 'for now' and 'in future if I contradict myself' ;-)

1) Languages are not 'precise' and at times 'words' can express the realities or concepts adequately. In the Tipitaka there are a lot of 'similes' and stories (nidaana) for lay people to understand.

2) I can't say if we are born 'clean' and get 'educated' (cultured) as we grow up or we continue accumulating our pa~n~naa and merits over lives. (The Jaatika-suttas in the Tipitaka suggest accumulation is the case.)

3) I haven't learned deeply enough about citta and cetasikas. I am still learning about the rise, life and fall away of each 'present citta'. (I have questions if 'where' and 'how' we accumulate pa~n~naa and ... from time to time (and life to life). I have been told that by keeping oneself in kusala 'conditions', one's cittas when arise will likely be in kusala states and add more to kusala conditions. (A positive feedback loop -- in modern words ;-)

I am an advocate for learning by senses. I have written a few posts on it (including a Plain and Simple English series based on using senses). See for example 6. A sense to connect, match, think and know. <see for="" example="" 6.="" a="" sense="" to="" connect,="" match,="" think="" and="" know.="" <a="" href="https://www.gotoknow.org/posts/385770"><https://www.gotoknow.org/posts/385770> So I agree that we should try to learn using our basic and more/extended/assisted (meters/guages/levels/... modern gadgets) senses.

<see for="" example="" 6.="" a="" sense="" to="" connect,="" match,="" think="" and="" know.="" <a="" href="https://www.gotoknow.org/posts/385770">And this is profound:
"...And absolutely for Buddhist standpoint is the Wisdom is knowing in Body in Mind or knowing in mind of the body..."

We will have to burn a few 'midnight candles' to learn 'our truth'. ;-)

เขียนเมื่อ 

I had problem giving a link to 6. A sense to connect, match, think and know. "https://www.gotoknow.org/posts/385770". G2K textbox beats me its complexity again ;-) Perhaps selecting the url and right clicking and choose 'open link'... would work easier.

เขียนเมื่อ 

I read ขั้นตอนการแก้ปัญหาตามวิธีอริยสัจ https://www.gotoknow.org/posts/600603 and added this link for those who want more information.

I think this should be taught in school. The principle is a solid foundation for life development. With this principle we we and children can develop the 'right view' and follow that to the 'right livelihood' with happiness on the way.

What is the aim of education? If not for self-reliant and happy living?

เขียนเมื่อ 

Visaakhapuja (วิสาขบูชา) Day just passed and another notable day is next -

วันอัฏฐมีบูชา” ตรงกับแรม 8 ค่ำ เดือน 6 (ปีวอก) หลายคนอาจไม่ทราบว่า “วันอัฏฐมีบูชา” มีความสำคัญอย่างไร ในวันนี้ คือวันถวายพระเพลิงพระพุทธสรีระของสมเด็จพระสัมมาสัมพุทธเจ้า --- http://www.naewna.com/local/216222

Let's us look at what 'Visaakhaa' mean:

1) visākhā: name of a lunar (zodiac) mansion (or time-zone), and that of a female devotee of the Buddha. (f.)

2) vi+saakhaa = two (or one and another or apart) + branch (or fork) = separate

That is 'visaakha' day is a 'break-away' day. Break away from what?

Here we have many meanings covered in one simple word eg.

== break away from 'Darkness' (Saaya) into Awakeneness or 'Knowledge' (Bodhi-). (so we can relate this to the 3 knowledge (ญาณ): knowledge of facts, knowledge of what to do, and knowledge of what are done.

== break away from the cycle of "Birth-Best-Death" (So, this day is the reminder for this evitable cycle by equating to the Buddha's Brith, Attainment and Parinibbaana on the same day.)

Let us now reflect on the Visaakhapuja Day differently. It is not just another holiday, not another walk around an uposatha, not another cycle in the dark and the light (twilight) zones,...

Let this Visaakhapuja Day mark the day we break-away.