Concept map

Aconcept mapis adiagramshowing the relationships amongconcepts. It is a graphical tool for organizing and representingknowledge.

Concepts, usually represented as boxes or circles, are connected with labeled arrows in a downward-branching hierarchical structure. The relationship between concepts can be articulated in linking phrases such as "gives rise to", "results in", "is required by," or "contributes to".[1]

The technique forvisualizingthese relationships among differentconceptsis called "concept mapping".

Concept maps are used to define theontologyof computer systems, for example with theobject role modelingorUnified Modeling Languageformalism.

A concept map is a way of representing relationships betweenideas,images, orwordsin the same way that asentence diagramrepresents the grammar of a sentence, a road map represents the locations of highways and towns, and acircuit diagramrepresents the workings of an electrical appliance. In a concept map, each word or phrase is connected to another and linked back to the original idea, word or phrase. Concept maps are a way to develop logical thinking and study skills by revealing connections and helping students see how individual ideas form a larger whole.[2]

Concept mapping versus topic maps and mind mapping

Concept maps are rather similar totopic maps(in that both allow to connect concepts or topics viagraphs), while both can be contrasted with the similar idea ofmind mapping, which is often restricted to radial hierarchies andtree structures. Among the various schema and techniques for visualizing ideas, processes, organizations, concept mapping, as developed byJoseph Novakis unique in philosophical basis, which "makes concepts, and propositions composed of concepts, the central elements in the structure of knowledge and construction of meaning."[5]Another contrast between Concept mapping and Mind mapping is the speed and spontaneity when a Mind map is created. A Mind map reflects what you think about a single topic, which can focus group brainstorming. A Concept map can be a map, a system view, of a real (abstract) system or set of concepts. Concept maps are more free form, as multiple hubs and clusters can be created, unlike mind maps which fix on a single conceptual center.


The technique of concept mapping was developed byJoseph D. Novak[6]and his research team atCornell Universityin the 1970s as a means of representing the emerging science knowledge of students. It has subsequently been used as a tool to increase meaningful learning in the sciences and other subjects as well as to represent the expert knowledge of individuals and teams in education, government and business. Concept maps have their origin in the learning movement calledconstructivism. In particular, constructivists hold that learners actively construct knowledge.

Novak's work is based on the cognitive theories ofDavid Ausubel(assimilation theory), who stressed the importance of prior knowledge in being able to learn new concepts: "The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach accordingly."[7]Novak taught students as young as six years old to make concept maps to represent their response to focus questions such as "What is water?" "What causes the seasons?" In his bookLearning How to Learn, Novak states that a "meaningful learning involves the assimilation of new concepts and propositions into existing cognitive structures."

Various attempts have been made to conceptualize the process of creating concept maps.Ray McAleese, in a series of articles, has suggested that mapping is a process ofoff-loading. In this 1998 paper, McAleese draws on the work ofSowa[8]and a paper bySweller & Chandler.[9]In essence, McAleese suggests that the process of making knowledge explicit, usingnodesandrelationships, allows the individual to become aware of what they know and as a result to be able to modify what they know.[10]Maria Birbili applies that same idea to helping young children learn to think about what they know.[11]The concept of theKnowledge Arenais suggestive of a virtual space where learners may explore what they know and what they do not know


Concept map  (ผังมโนทัศน์ )

  แผนที่ความคิดเป็นแผนภาพแสดงความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างมโนทัศน์ ( Concept)เกี่ยวกับเรื่องใดเรื่องหนึ่งอย่างเป็นลำดับขั้น เพื่อให้เกิดการสร้างองค์ความรู้อย่างเป็นระบบ

  เทคนิคการจัดแผนที่ความคิดพัฒนาโดยโจเซฟดัวัค และทีมงานวิจัย ที่ Cornell University)  ถูกนำมาใช้เป็นเครื่องมือในการเพิ่มการเรียนรู้ที่มีความหมายในด้าววิทยาศาสตร์และวิชาอื่น ๆ แผนที่ความคิดมีต้นกำเนิดในการเรียนรู้ที่เรียกว่า constructivism  โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่ง constructivism ถือได้ว่าผู้เรียนสร้างความรู้ อยู่บนพื้นฐานของทฤษฎีการเรียนรู้ของเดวิค Ausubel (ทฤษฎีการดูดซึม)





บันทึกนี้เขียนที่ GotoKnow โดย  ใน นวัตกรรมในอนาคต

คำสำคัญ (Tags)#นวัตกรรม

หมายเลขบันทึก: 510711, เขียน: 02 Dec 2012 @ 13:06, แก้ไข, 12 Dec 2012 @ 17:13, สัญญาอนุญาต: ครีเอทีฟคอมมอนส์แบบ แสดงที่มา-ไม่ใช้เพื่อการค้า-ไม่ดัดแปลง, ดอกไม้: 3, อ่าน: คลิก

ความเห็น (0)