การใช้ภาษาอังกฤษ ที่ถือว่า ถูกต้อง ในที่นี้ เป็นไป ตามมาตรฐาน ของภาษา
การใช้ภาษาอังกฤษ ไม่กำหนดมาตฐาน ถือตามส่วนใหญ่ที่ใช้แต่ละท้องถิ่น
ความหมาย อาจยืดหยุ่น ขึ้นอยู่กับ ตำแหน่ง/หน้าที่ ในประโยค
ออกเสียง Involuntary = ‘in-VOL-uhn-ter-ee’
ออกเสียง voluntary = ‘VOL-uhn-ter-ee’
Dictionary of Problem Words and Expression
Involuntary & voluntary
The meaning of these words
are so often different
that they should never be confused,
but they often are.
(an Involuntary movement of the eyes);
“independent of one’s will,”
“made or done other than by one’s own choice”
(an Involuntary witness to the crime).
“undertaken or brought about
by one’s own choice, one’s free will
(a voluntary contribution to the campaign);
“according to one’s own will or desires.”
(voluntary cooperation with the police).
Voluntary implies the previous use of judgment and consideration (a voluntary admission of guilt);
Involuntary implies lack of conscious control
and is direct opposite of intentional
(Involuntary twitching of tired muscles).
SYNONYM STUDY FOR VOLUNTARY
Voluntary, spontaneous agree in applying to
something that is a natural outgrowth
or natural expression arising from circumstances and conditions.
Voluntary implies having given previous consideration,
or having exercised judgment:
a voluntary confession; a voluntary movement;
The offer was a voluntary one.
Something that is spontaneous arises
as if by itself from the nature of the circumstances or condition:
spontaneous applause, combustion, expression of admiration.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
vol′un·tar′i·ly (-târ′ə-lē) adv.
voluntary, intentional, deliberate, willful, willing
These adjectives mean
being or resulting from one's own free will.
Voluntary implies the operation of unforced choice:
Ignorance, when it is voluntary, is criminal" (Samuel Johnson).
Intentional applies to something undertaken
to further a plan or realize an aim:
"I will abstain from all intentional wrongdoing and harm" (Hippocratic Oath).
Deliberate stresses premeditation and full awareness
of the character and consequences of one's acts:
taking deliberate and decisive action.
Willful implies deliberate, headstrong persistence
in a self-determined course of action:
a willful waste of time.
Willing suggests ready or cheerful acquiescence
in the proposals or requirements of another:
"The first requisite of a good citizen ...
is that he shall be able and willing to pull his weight"
Choose the Right Synonym for voluntary
VOLUNTARY, INTENTIONAL, and DELIBERATE
mean done or brought about by choice.
VOLUNTARY is used of an act that
results from freedom of will.
Joining the club is voluntary.
It can also be used of an act that is controlled by the will.
Blinking the eyes can be a voluntary movement.
INTENTIONAL is used of something that is done for a reason and only after some thought.
Her neglect of the task was intentional.
DELIBERATE is used of an act that is done purposefully
and with full understanding of the likely results.
It was a deliberate insult.