2022-05-18 ศัพท์ ที่มักสับสน ชุด G – Gourmand & gourmet & glutton


Revision G

2022-05-18

ศัพท์ ที่มักสับสน ชุด G – Gourmand & gourmet & glutton

แนะนำการใช้ ตามที่ส่วนใหญ่ใช้ แต่ละท้องถิ่น 

ความหมาย อาจผันแปร ตาม ตำแหน่ง/หน้าที่ ในประโยค

แสดงรายละเอียด จากตำราแต่ละเล่ม ที่เป็นหัวข้อ ต่อไปนี้:

Ref. :http://www.gotoknow.org/posts/598463 and #683368@15/12/2015

 

Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง gourmand = ‘goor-MAHNDorGOOR-muhnd’

ออกเสียง gourmet = ‘goor-MEYorGOOR-mey’

ออกเสียง glutton = ‘GLUHT-n’

 

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expression

gourmand & gourmet & glutton 

These words have to do with eating

but they are different in meaning.

A gourmand is a large, enthusiastic eater 

(Diamond Jim Brady was a gourmand, 

often eating for three hours at a time).

A gourmet is a fastidious eater

an epicure (As a French chef, he considers himself a gourmet). 

A glutton is one with a huge appetite

one who eats to excess and 

with little delicacy of choice or table manners

A gourmand is a heavy consumer of food 

but prides himself to some degree on his knowledge of cuisine; 

a gourmet may or may not be 

a heavy consumer of food 

but in any event is a connoisseur, and expert

only a glutton eats with an unrestrained appetite

 

The use of gourmet 

as an adjective (gourmet foods, a gourmet meal) 

is not considered standard,

but widespread usage will likely 

confer reputability upon it as time passes.

 

Abused, Confused, & Misused Words by Mary Embree

gourmand

= a person who likes food and 

    tends to eat to excess: 

He’s nothing more than a gourmand who eats everything in sight.

Not to be confused with:

Gourmet = connoisseur of finefood and drink: 

His choice of wines shows that he is a gourmet.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Choose the Right Synonym for gourmand & gourmet

Epicure, Gourmet, Gourmand, Gastronome 

mean one who takes pleasure in eating and drinking

Epicure implies fastidiousness and voluptuousness of taste

Gourmet implies being a connoisseur in food and drink 

and the discriminating enjoyment of them. 

Gourmand implies a hearty appetite for good food and drink

not without discernment, but with less than a gourmet's. 

Gastronome implies that one has studied extensively 

the history and rituals of haute cuisine.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Did You Know?

What God has plagu'd us with this gormaund guest? 

As this exasperated question from Alexander Pope's 18th-century translation of Homer's Odyssey suggests,

being a gourmand is not necessarily a good thing

 

When "gourmand" began appearing in English texts in the 15th century, 

it was a decidedly bad thing, a synonym of "glutton" 

that was reserved for a greedy eater 

who consumed well past satiation.

That negative connotation remained 

until English speakers borrowed the similar-sounding 

(and much more positive) "gourmet" 

from French in the 19th century. 

 

Since then, the meaning of "gourmand" has softened

so that although it still isn't wholly flattering, 

it now suggests someone who

likes good food in large quantities rather than a slobbering glutton.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Usage Notes

'Gourmet' or 'Gourmand'?

Those people who wish to describe themselves 

as people who love food, but who are averse 

to self-identifying with the word foodie,

are left with several options.

There is epicure,

which is defined as

“one with sensitive and discriminating tastes 

especially in food or wine.” 

However, this word also has the meaning of 

“one devoted to sensual pleasure,” 

and is therefore perhaps best avoided

 

There is the option of describing oneself as a gastronome 

(“a lover of good food”),

but this is an obscure word, 

and when attempting to let others know 

that you value fine grub 

it is important to be understood.

 

For many people the choice of descriptors 

comes down to a battle between gourmand and gourmet

While both of these words are 

concerned with food or drink and 

the enjoyment of ingesting these things, 

 

they have histories and meanings which are different enough that 

a degree of consideration is warranted 

before describing yourself as one or the other.

 

Gourmand is the older of these two, in use since the 15th century. 

For the first several hundred years this word was in use 

          its meaning was largely confined to “glutton,” 

          orone who is excessively fond of eating and drinking.”

 

Gourmet is defined as “a connoisseur of food and drink.

 

The word may also function as an adjective,

          meaningof, relating to, or 

          being high quality, expensive, or 

          specialty food typically requiring 

          elaborate and expert preparation.”

 

This word is a relative newcomer, not showing up in English 

until the end of the 18th century as a noun,

and the end of the 19th as an adjective.

 

Gourmet may be traced to the French word grommes

which may mean, among other things, “wine merchant's assistant.” 

As seen in its early uses, the word once had a meaning in English 

that was much closer to its French roots

as it typically referred to

one who discriminated in wines, rather than food. 

Gourmet now shares its meaning with food and drink, 

and the semantic province of wine words 

has been largely taken over by such as 

sommelier (“a wine steward”), 

oenophile (“ a lover or connoisseur of wine”), 

and, for the truly discriminating, stewbum (“drunkard”).’

 

As gourmet became increasingly common

         and increasingly associated with food,

         the “glutton” sense of gourmand began to soften 

         (possibly through people associating the two words), 

         and people began using the word in a new sense

         “one who is heartily interested in good food and drink.” 

Some usage guides feel that gourmand 

         should be used exclusively to refer to 

         one who overindulges in food and drink. 

 

However, our records indicate that 

         the newer meaning 

         (“one who is heartily interested in good food and drink”) 

         is now the more common sense.

This does not mean that the two words are interchangeable

        many writers do take care to distinguish 

        between gourmet and gourmand.

 

Even in such instances where gourmand is used 

       without the judgmental feel of “glutton,” 

       the sense of “heartily interested in good food and drink” 

       tends to be easily distinguishable from gourmet.

 

The gourmand tends to engage 

         in a more populist form of eating and drinking than the gourmet.

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