2022-04-22 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – G – gender & sex


Revision G

2022-04-22

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – G – gender & sex

แนะนำการใช้ ตามที่ส่วนใหญ่ใช้ แต่ละท้องถิ่น 

ความหมาย อาจผันแปร ตาม ตำแหน่ง/หน้าที่ ในประโยค

Ref.: http://www.gotoknow.org/posts/598367 and 683241

 

Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง “Gender” = ‘JEN-der’

ออกเสียง “Sex” = ‘SEKS’

 

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expressions:

gender & sex

Gender  is a grammatical term 

            indicating (in the English language) 

            whether nouns and pronouns are classed 

            as masculine, feminine, or neuter.

The number of genders in languages 

            other than English varies from two to more than twenty

            in some language, gender disregards sex entirely.

For example

            a sexless (neuter) article, the noun pen, is, 

            in French, feminine (la plume). 

 

In Old English, 

           the word for wife was considered neuter 

            and woman was masculine.

           Gender can never be substituted for sex. 

 

Sex, a word of many meanings, and applications, 

           applies specifically to the fact or character 

           of being male or female (See FEMALE). 

 

Thus we say that Bill is a proper noun in masculine gender 

and that Bill is a member of the male sex.

Substitute sex for gender in this statement: 

          “Students in this school are classified

            on the basis of age, gender, and previous training.”

 

Dictionary.com

USAGE NOTE FOR GENDER

Although it is possible to define gender as “sex,” 

           indicating that the term can be used

           when differentiating male creatures from female ones biologically

           the concept of gender

           a word primarily applied to human beings

           has additional connotations

             —more rich and more amorphous

             —having to do with general behavior, social interactions, 

            and most importantly, one's fundamental sense of self.

 

Until recently, most people assumed that 

            acknowledging one's gender, or sex, was easy. 

You just checked the appropriate box on a standard form, 

            choosing either “male” or “female,”

            according to the gender you had been assigned at birth 

            based on visible anatomical evidence. 

 

But some people's internal sense of who they are 

           does not correspond with their assigned gender. 

And in fact, we now recognize that a complex spectrum 

           between male and female exists

           not only mentally, psychologically, and behaviorally, 

           but also anatomically; 

           there have always been intersex people.

 

The conflation of gender with sex, though historically common

          is now often criticized because it is seen by some 

          to be insensitive or dehumanizing.
          Gender identity is complicated. 

 

Some people, perhaps most, do not question their assigned gender. 

But others perceive themselves as belonging to the opposite sex. 

Still others, some of whom identify themselves as genderqueer 

                see themselves as neither male nor female, 

                or perhaps as both, or as rotating between genders, 

                or even as not belonging to any gender categorization at all.


Those who clearly see themselves as the opposite sex 

               may or may not want to transition to it in some measure. 

Of those who do, some may complete that transition, 

               but others may be happy to stop partway on a path 

               that can include dressing and living as the opposite sex, 

               although the desire to crossdress can exist 

               quite apart from issues of gender identity. 

 

Somewhere along the transitional path 

              people may want to change their given names 

              and adopt linguistic terms of their own choosing, 

              including a variety of pronouns, 

              as designations of themselves and others. 

 

Some will have hormone treatments and opt for various kinds of surgery

—perhaps facial, perhaps on their bodies, 

perhaps ultimately including sex “reassignment” surgery 

              (genital reconstruction). 

At any point, they may welcome or reject a “transgender” label.

 

This array of life experiences has resulted in 

              a veritable explosion of new, or newly adapted, vocabulary

 

Particularly striking and useful is the word cis or prefix cis- 

        as in cis male, cis female, and cisgender, 

        designating those whose

        sense of self matches their assigned gender. 

 

Using cis is a way to refer to these individuals 

        without implying that “cis” people are the norm 

        and all others a deviation from “normal.” 

 

It is notable that choices of gender beyond male and female 

now appear on social media sites. 

Clearly, gender is no longer a simple binary concept.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Are gender and sex the same? Usage Guide

Noun

The words sex and gender have a long and intertwined history. 

In the 15th century gender expanded from 

           its use as a term for a grammatical subclass

           to join sex in referring to either of the two 

           primary biological forms of a species,

           a meaning sex has had since the 14th century; 

 

phrases like "the male sex" and "the female gender"

          are both grounded in uses

          established for more than five centuries. 

 

In the 20th century sex and gender each acquired new uses

Sex developed its "sexual intercourse" meaning 

            in the early part of the century (now its more common meaning), 

            and a few decades later 

            gender gained a meaning referring to the behavioral, cultural, 

            or psychological traits typically associated with one sex, 

            as in "gender roles." 

 

Later in the century

            gender also came to have application 

            in two closely related compound terms

gender identity refers to 

            a person's internal sense of being male, female, 

            some combination of male and female,

            or neither male nor female; 

gender expression refers to 

           the physical and behavioral manifestations 

           of one's gender identity.

 

By the end of the century 

           gender by itself was being used as a synonym of gender identity.

Among those who study gender and sexuality, 

           a clear delineation between sex and gender is typically prescribed,

 

with sex as the preferred term for biological forms

and gender limited to its meanings involving 

          behavioral, cultural, and psychological traits

 

In this dichotomy, the terms male and female 

          relate only to biological forms (sex),

while the terms 

          masculine/masculinity

          feminine/femininitywoman/girl

          and man/boy 

relate only to psychological and sociocultural traits (gender).

 

This delineation also tends to be observed 

          in technical and medical contexts,

          with the term sex referring to biological forms 

in such phrases as sex hormonessex organs, and biological sex

 

But in nonmedical and nontechnical contexts

           there is no clear delineation, 

           and the status of the words remains complicated. 

 

Often when comparisons explicitly between 

            male and female people are made, 

we see the term gender employed, 

            with that term dominating in such collocations 

as gender differencesgender gapgender equality

gender bias, and gender relations

 

It is likely that gender is applied in such contexts 

            because of its psychological and sociocultural meanings

            the word's duality making it dually useful

The fact remains that it is often applied in such cases 

            against the prescribed use.
Usage of sex and gender is by no means settled. 

 

For example

while discrimination was far more often paired with sex 

from the 1960s through the 20th century and into the 21st, 

the phrase gender discrimination 

                  has been steadily increasing in use since the 1980s 

                  and is on track to become the dominant collocation. 

 

Currently both terms are sometimes 

            employed with their intended synonymy made explicit

sex/gender discriminationgender (sex) discrimination.

 

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language

gen′der·less adj

Usage Note: 

Some people maintain that the word sex 

           should be reserved for reference to the biological aspects 

           of being male or female or to sexual activity

 and that the word gender should be used 

           only to refer to sociocultural roles

Accordingly, one would say 

The effectiveness of the treatment appears to depend on the sex of the patient 

and In society, gender roles are clearly defined. 

 

In some situations, 

          this distinction avoids ambiguity,

as in gender research, which is clear in a way that sex research is not. 

The distinction can be problematic, however. 

Linguistically,

           there isn't any real difference between gender bias 

           and sex bias, and it may seem contrived to insist 

           that sex is incorrect in this instance.

 

Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary

usage.: 

The use of gender in the sense “sex” 

        (The author's gender should be irrelevant.) is over 600 years old. 

Although some people feel that gender should be 

        reserved for grammatical category only, 

        the “sex” sense of gender is now extremely common

        sex itself is becoming increasingly rare 

        except when referring to copulation.

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