2022-04-20 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – G – gaff & gaffe


Revision G

2022-04-20

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – G – gaff & gaffe

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Dictionary.com:

ออกเสียง gaff & gaffe = “GAF

 

Common Error in English Usage Dictionary:

Gaffe is a French word meaning 

                “embarrassing mistake,”

           and should not be mixed up with “gaff”: 

                = a large hook.

 

Abused, Confused, & Misused Words by Mary Embree: 

gaff

               = a metal hook fastened to a pole; 

               = to cheat; fleece;  

               = harsh treatment or criticism: 

                      All the gaff he had to take made him even more reclusive.

Not to be confused with:

gaffe 

               =  a social blunder; 

               = faux pas: 

                      His sudden outburst of anger was an unfortunate gaffe.

 

Dictionary.com:

ORIGIN OF GAFF

First recorded in 1275–1325; Middle English, 

from Middle French gaffe, gaff, 

from Provençal gaf “hook, gaff,” noun derivative of gafar “to seize” (compare Medieval Latin gaffare ), 

probably from unattested Germanic (Visigothic) gaff-, 

perhaps derivative from base of Gothic giban “to give”; 

see give

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

History and Etymology for gaff

Noun (1)

borrowed from French gaffe,

          going back to Middle French, 

          borrowed from Old Occitan gaf,

          probably derivative of gafar "to seize," of obscure origin

 

NOTE: Middle English gaffe, occurring in the early 14th-century 

"Kildare Poems" (British Library MS Harley 913) and 

glossed "iron hook" in the Middle English Dictionary

            is of uncertain relation to the modern word. 

            It predates attestations of the word in French.

 

Random House Kerneman Webster’s college Dictionary:

Gaff   v.t. slang

          = to cheat, fleece

          noun

           = Informal. harsh treatment, criticism, or ridicule 

              (used esp. in the phrase stand the gaff).

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Trending: ‘gaffe

Why are people looking up gaffe?

The first of the 2020 Presidential debates had not yet begun, 

and already lookups for the word gaffe were spiking on September 29, 2020, 

in anticipation (some might say salivation) of one of the candidates 

committing one of these.

 

Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden’s wife, Jill Biden, 

shut down a question Sunday from CNN’s Jake Tapper about any “gaffe” 

her husband may make.

 

“Oh, you can't even go there,” Jill Biden told the “State of the Union” host 

when he led into a question by noting that the former vice president 

“has been known to make the occasional gaffe.”
— Rebecca Klar, The Hill, 27 Sept. 2020

 

What does gaffe mean?

We define gaffe as 

                 either “a social or diplomatic blunder

                       ora noticeable mistake.” 

It is borrowed from French, 

and is believed to be a sense development of the same word (gaffe), 

going back to Middle French, and 

which was borrowed from Old Occitan gaf 

(it was probably derivative of gafar, meaning "to seize," of obscure origin).

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Words of the Week

Merriam-Webster's Words of the Week - Jan. 21

The words that defined the week ending January 21st, 2022

Minor’ & ‘Gaffe’

Minor and gaffe were both in the news last week, 

after President Biden made a statement using the former word 

in a manner that many people felt qualified as an example of the latter.

 

It was 28 minutes into Joe Biden's press conference 

when the gaffe came - and it was a jaw-dropper

Especially if you were watching in Kyiv or the Kremlin. 

The US President appeared to say that, 

if Vladimir Putin were to make only a "minor incursion" into Ukraine, 

then Russia would not face devastating sanctions.
— Nick Allen, The Telegraph (London, Eng.), 20 Jan. 2022

 

The relevant sense of minor is defined as 

           “inferior in importance, size, or degree : 

            comparatively unimportant

            (assuming that Biden was not making an obscure reference 

             to a musical sense, 

            such as “having a minor third above the root,” 

            or an educational one, 

            such as “of or relating to an academic subject 

             requiring fewer courses than a major”). 

This word comes from the Latin minor, meaning “smaller, less, inferior.”

 

Gaffe may be defined as either

             “a social or diplomatic blunder” 

              or “a noticeable mistake.”

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Words of the Week - April 1

’Gaffe’

On the other side of the political aisle, 

President Biden caused the word gaffe to spike in lookups, 

after he finished a speech with comments on Vladimir Putin 

that some felt were geopolitically inapt.

 

US President Joe Biden was once again spotted 

carrying a cheat sheet containing talking points 

related to his comments on Vladimir Putin, 

in what appeared to be an attempt at avoiding another gaffe.
— Stuti Mishra, The Independent (London, Eng.), 29 Mar. 2022

 

We define gaffe as either 

           “a social or diplomatic blunder” 

           or “a noticeable mistake.”

 

It is borrowed from French, and is believed to be 

a sense development of the same word (gaffe), 

going back to Middle French, and which was 

borrowed from Old Occitan gaf 

(it was probably derivative of gafar, meaning "to seize," of obscure origin).

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Word history

The term shandy itself is a shortening of shandygaff, 

which first appears in 19th-century England. 

 

Although we don't know for sure 

how the name shandygaff came about, 

we are fairly certain that

the concept of a beer cocktail traces back centuries earlier. 

 

And we are definitely sure that a shandygaff was enjoyed

Charles Dickens once commented that 

          it was the perfect "alliance between beer and pop." 

 

In The Adventures of Mr. Verdant Green

—an 1853 novel about a first-year undergraduate at Oxford University 

written under the pseudonym Cuthbert M. Bede

 

—Mr. Green states that a friend taught him 

"to make shandy-gaff and sherry-cobbler …: oh, it's capital!" 

 

By late-19th century, shandygaff is shortened to shandy, 

and creative imbibers begin experimenting. 

 

Refreshing, effervescent lemonade 

                   becomes an early substitute for ginger beer. 

Other mixers such as orange and grapefruit juice soon follow, 

                    along with cider.

Shandygaff is a compound word, 

             but as to why the base words came together 

             (or in what senses they are used in) is a mystery. 

 

Inevitably, there has been speculation. 

Some people have suggested that 

gaff is a portmanteau of ginger and half.

 

That's possible, but what about 

the other multiple uses of gaff 

that enter the English language by mid-19th century? 

 

Quite possibly, one of those could have been 

applied jocularly for the beverage's name.

 

The most common use of gaff is

          as the name for the spear or hook 

          used for lifting heavy fish out of the water. 

 

Another gaff refers to loud laughter 

              (as in "his resounding gaffs filled the room" 

                or "he gaffed merrily")

              —senses found in dialectal Scottish English. 

 

There is also gaff meaning "a fair" 

             or "a place of lower-class amusement 

             (as at a theater or music hall)." 

 

In a 1918 collection of essays entitled, fittingly, Shandygaff,

American writer Christopher Morley 

links the word shandygaff to the lower classes, 

            "Shandygaff is a very refreshing drink

              being a mixture of bitter ale or beer and ginger-beer

              commonly drunk by the lower classes in England, 

              and by strolling tinkers, low church parsons, newspaper men,

              journalists, and prizefighters." 

 

As early as the 17th century, 

            shandy was also being used in dialectal English as an adjective 

            to refer to people who were wild, boisterous, or slightly crazy. 

 

Perhaps, the "place of lower-class amusement" sense of gaff 

and this sense of shandy were blended together.

It's certainly not unreasonable to think that people drinking 

shandygaffs in lower-class establishments got a little wild

          —we just need to find evidence corroborating this etymology.

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