ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด I – Indian – Native American
การใช้ภาษาอังกฤษ ที่ถือว่า ถูกต้อง ในที่นี้ เป็นไป ตามมาตรฐาน ของภาษา
การใช้ภาษาอังกฤษ ไม่กำหนดมาตฐาน ถือตามส่วนใหญ่ที่ใช้แต่ละท้องถิ่น
ความหมาย อาจยืดหยุ่น ขึ้นอยู่กับ ตำแหน่ง/หน้าที่ ในประโยค
ออกเสียง Indian = ‘IN-dee-uhn’
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language
Native American adj.
Usage Note: Native American is now fully established in American English as an equivalent of Indian, being acceptable in all contemporary contexts and preferred in many. It is especially appropriate as a term of respect used by outsiders, who may have concerns that Indian could cause offense by its association with longstanding cultural stereotypes.
Native American is the clear choice in many formal contexts, not only because it indicates respect but, more pragmatically, because it avoids any ambiguity between indigenous American peoples and the inhabitants of India.
But despite its wide acceptance, Native American has not displaced Indian to any significant degree outside of formal contexts, and it is now commonto find the two terms used interchangeably in the same piece of writing.
Furthermore, the issue of which term to use has never been particularly divisive between Indians and non-Indians.
While generally welcoming the respectful toneof Native American, most Indian writers have continued to use Indian at least as often.
Native American and Indian are not exact equivalents when referring to the indigenous peoples of Canada and Alaska.
Native American, the broader term, is properly used of all such peoples, whereas Indian is customarily used of the northern Athabaskan and Algonquian peoples in contrast to the Inuit and the Yupik.
Alaska Native (or less commonly Native Alaskan) is also properly used of all indigenous peoples residing in Alaska.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary
usage: In modern times the term Indian may refer to a member of an aboriginal American people, to an inhabitant of the subcontinent of India, or to a citizen of the Republic of India. In the 18th century the term American Indian came to be used for the aboriginal inhabitants of the U.S. and Canada; it now includes the aboriginal peoples of South America as well. Amerindian and Amerind developed in the next century in a further attempt to reduce ambiguity. The most recent designation, esp. in North America, is Native American. American Indians themselves tend to use the terms Indian, American Indian, or a specific tribal name. They sometimes refer to themselves collectively as Indian Peoples. Whether one term will gain ascendancy over the others remains to be seen. The only pre-European inhabitants of North America to whom Indian or terms using the word Indian usu. are not applied are the Eskimos and Aleuts. See also Eskimo.
USAGE NOTE FOR INDIAN
Because Christopher Columbus mistakenly believed that the Caribbean island on which he had landed was the subcontinent ofIndia, he called the inhabitants Indians. Eventually, that name was applied to almost all the Indigenous, non-European inhabitants of North and South America. In modern times Indian may refer to an inhabitant of the subcontinent of India or of the East Indies, to a citizen of the Republic of India, or to a member of an aboriginal American people.
In the 18th century the term American Indian came to be used for the aboriginal inhabitants of the United States and Canada; it now includes the aboriginal peoples of South America as well. (When necessary, further distinctions are made with such terms as North American Indian and South American Indian. )
The terms Amerindian and Amerind subsequently developed in the attempt to reduce ambiguity. For some, especially among North American Indians, the preferred designation is Native American. All these terms appear in edited writing. Whether one or several will gain ascendancy over the others remains to be seen.
The only pre-European inhabitants of North America to whom Indian or other terms using the word Indian are not applied are the Eskimos or Inuit. See Eskimo. See also honest Injun, Indian giver.
Common Errors in English Usage Dictionary
Indian – Native American
Although academics have long promoted “Native American” as a more accurate label than “Indian,” most of the people so labeled continue to refer to themselves as “Indians” and prefer that term. In Canada, there is a move to refer to descendants of the original inhabitants as “First Peoples,” but so far that has not spread to the U.S.