All contents in this note are cited from two references:

1. Margolis, H. & McCabe, P.P. (2006). Improving self-efficacy and motivation: what to do, what to say. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41 (4): 218-27.

2. Zimmerman, B.J. (2000). Self-efficacy: an essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25: 82-91.

Please find more details about "Self-efficacy" at http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/self-efficacy.html .

"Self-efficacy has emerged as a highly effective predictor of students' motivation and learning." Zimmerman, 2000, p. 82

He also said "self-efficay beliefs provide students with a sense of agency to motivate their learning through use of such self-regulatory processes as goal setting, self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and strategy use." p. 87.

  <p>“Low self-efficacy beliefs, unfortunately, impede academic achievement and, in the ling run, create self-fulfilling prophecies of failure and learned helplessness that can devastate psychological well-being.” Margolis and McCabe, 2006, p. 219.</p><p>They suggested “what to do for all educators” into five ways of improving self-efficacy in students as follows:</p><p>1. Plan moderately challengin tasks</p><p>2. Use peer models</p><p>3. Teach specific learning strategies</p><p>4. Capitalize on student choice and interest</p><p>5. Reinforce effort and correct strategy use.</p><p> </p><p> </p><div style="text-align: center"></div>