2022-05-06 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – G – give & confer & grant


Revision G

2022-05-06

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – G – give & confer & grant

แนะนำการใช้ ตามที่ส่วนใหญ่ใช้ แต่ละท้องถิ่น 

ความหมาย อาจผันแปร ตาม ตำแหน่ง/หน้าที่ ในประโยค

 

Dictionary.com:

ออกเสียงconfer = “Kuhn-FUR”     

 

Dictionary.com:

ORIGIN OF GIVE

First recorded before 900; Middle English, 

from Old Norse gefa (compare Danish give ); 

replacing Middle English yeven, yiven, Old English gefan, giefan; 

cognate with Dutch geven, German geben, Gothic giban 

(the pronunciation of the Middle English and Old English forms 

with initial y- were replaced by Old Norse g- 

as early as 1200 in parts of the Danelaw)

 

ORIGIN OF CONFER

First recorded in 1400–50 for earlier senseto summon”; 

1520–30 for current senses; late Middle English conferen, 

from Latin conferre “to bring together, compare, consult with,” 

equivalent to con- “with, together, completely” 

(see con-) + ferre “to carry, bear” (see bear1)

 

ORIGIN OF GRANT

1175–1225; Middle English gra(u)nten<Old French graunter, 

variant of crëanter<Vulgar Latin *credentāre, verbal derivative 

of Latin crēdent-, stem of crēdēns, present participle of crēdere to believe

 

Dictionary.com:

SYNONYM STUDY FOR GIVE

Give, Confer, Grant, Present 

may mean that something concrete or abstract 

          is bestowed on one person by another

Give is the general word: 

          to give someone a book, permission, etc. 

Confer usually means to give an honor or a favor

          it implies courteous and gracious giving

                 to confer a degree. 

Grant is limited to the idea of acceding to a request

          it may apply to the bestowal of privileges

          or the fulfillment of an expressed wish

               to grant a charter, a prayer, permission, etc. 

Presenta more formal word than give

           usually implies a certain ceremony in the giving

              to present a citation to a regiment.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Choose the Right Synonym for give

Verb

Give, Present, Donate, Bestow, Confer, Afford 

mean to convey to another as a possession.

Give, the general term

           is applicable to any passing over

           of anything by any means.  

                 give alms   

                 gave her a ride on a pony   

                 give my love to your mother

Present carries a note of formality and ceremony.  

                  present an award

Donate is likely to imply a publicized giving (as to charity).  

                  donate a piano to the orphanage

Bestow implies the conveying of something as a gift 

              and may suggest condescension

              on the part of the giver.  

                   bestow unwanted advice

Confer implies a gracious giving (as of a favor or honor).  

                   confer an honorary degree

Afford implies a giving or bestowing 

               usually as a natural or legitimate consequence 

               of the character of the giver.  

                      the trees afford shade   

                      a development that affords us some hope 

 

Choose the Right Synonym for grant

Verb

Grant, Concede, Vouchsafe, Accord, Award 

mean to give as a favor or a right.

Grant implies giving to a claimant or petitioner 

              something that could be withheld.  

                       granted them a new hearing

Concede implies yielding something reluctantly

               in response to a rightful or compelling claim.  

                        even her critics concede she can be charming

Vouchsafe implies granting something as a courtesy 

               or an act of gracious condescension.  

                         vouchsafed the secret to only a few chosen disciples

Accord implies giving to another what is due or proper.  

                          accorded all the honors befitting a head of state

Award implies giving what is deserved or merited 

                usually after a careful weighing of pertinent factors.  

                           awarded the company a huge defense contract 

 

Choose the Right Synonym for confer

Give, Present, Donate, Bestow, Confer, Afford 

mean to convey to another as a possession.

Give, the general term,

             is applicable to any passing over

            of anything by any means.  

                     give alms   

                     gave her a ride on a pony   

                     give my love to your mother

Present carries a note of 

              formality and ceremony.  

                      present an award

Donate is likely to imply 

             a publicized giving (as to charity).  

                      donate a piano to the orphanage

Bestow implies the conveying of something as a gift 

             and may suggest condescension on the part of the giver.  

                       bestow unwanted advice

Confer implies a gracious giving (as of a favor or honor).  

                       confer an honorary degree

Afford implies a giving or bestowing 

             usually as a natural or legitimate consequence 

             of the character of the giver.  

                        the trees afford shade   

                        a development that affords us some hope 

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Confer vs. Consult

Confer and consult are very closely related in meaning

          and each has senses that are synonymous with the other’s. 

But as is so often the case with near-synonyms, 

          there are contexts in which one word is preferable to the other.

 

If you confer with someone, 

          it is entirely possible that you will be seeking advice

          but you could also simply be having a discussion 

(“they conferred privately before making a decision”). 

 

If you are consulting someone or something, 

          it is more likely that you are seeking advice 

          (“he consulted his doctor before 

            deciding on a course of treatment”). 

Consult is unambiguously the correct choice 

            when one is seeking guidance

            or information from a non-human source

            you would consult (not confer with) a dictionary 

            for information on a word.

The sense of confer that is concerned with giving something 

            (as in, “education confers many benefits”) is not shared by consult.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Words of the Week

‘University’ & ‘Confer’

Reports that a group of concerned thinkers 

          were planning on forming a new university 

          caused lookups for that word to spike. 

Also showing increased lookups was confer,

          after it was reported that the school in question 

          was not yet accredited, and thus lacked the ability to grant degrees.

 

University came into English use in the 14th century, 

initially with such meanings as 

           “a body of persons gathered at a particular place 

            for the disseminating and assimilating of knowledge 

            in advanced fields of study” 

            (a meaning that is now considered archaic). 

 

In current use the word typically carries the meaning 

           “an institution of higher learning 

            providing facilities for teaching and research 

            and authorized to grant academic degrees.” 

 

Confer, as used transitively in the context 

            of a college or university granting degrees

            is defined as 

            “to grant or bestow (something) from 

             or as if from a position of authority.”

 

Collins COBUID English Dictionary:

give

1. form and word order

Give is a very common verb that has several meanings. 

Its past tense is gave. Its -ed participle is given.

Give usually takes an indirect object. 

         For some meanings of give,

         the indirect object must goin front of the direct object

For other meanings, 

         it can go either in front of the direct object or after it.

 

2. physical actions

Give is often used to describe physical actions

When you use give like this, put the indirect object

          in front of the direct object. 

For example, say 

          'He gave the ball a kick'.

Don't say 'He gave a kick to the ball'.

He gave the door a push.

Ana gave Bal's hand a squeeze.

 

3. expressions and gestures

Give is also used to describe expressions and gestures

When give is used like this

          the indirect object goes in front of the direct object.

He gave her a kind smile.

As he passed me, he gave me a wink.

 

4. effects

You can also use give to describe 

           an effect produced by someone or something. 

Again, the indirect object goes in front of the direct object.

I thought I'd give you a surprise.

That noise gives me a headache.

 

5. things

If you give someone something, 

you offer it to them and they take it

When you use give like this, the indirect object

            can go either in front of the direct object or after it. 

When you put the direct object first

            you put to in front of the indirect object.

She gave Ravinder the keys.

He gave the letter to the teacher.

 

However, when the direct object is a pronoun 

            such as it or them and the indirect object is not a pronoun, 

            you must put the direct object first

Say 'He gave it to his father'. 

Don't say 'He gave his father it'.

                He poured some milk and gave it to Joseph.

 

6. information

You also say that you give someone

            information, advice, a warning, or an order

When give is used like this, the indirect object 

            can go either in front of the direct object or after it.

Her secretary gave the caller the message.

He gave a strict warning to them not to look at the sun.

The captain gave an order to his team.

 

Collins COBUID English Dictionary:

Offer – give – invite

1. 'offer'

If you offer something to someone

you ask them if they would like to have it or use it.

He offered me a chocolate. I shook my head.

 

2. 'give'

If you put something in someone's hand

          expecting them to take it, and they do take it, 

don't say that you 'offer' it to them. 

You say that you give it to them.

She gave Minnie the keys.

He gave me a red jewellery box.

 

3. 'offer to'

If you offer to do something,

you say that you are willing to do it.

He offered to take her home in a taxi.

I offered to answer any questions.

 

4. 'invite'

If someone asks you to do something that they think you will want to do, 

don't say that they 'offer' you to do it. 

You say that they invite you to do it.

I was invited to attend future meetings.

She invited me to come for dinner.

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