2022-01-23 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – C - compare & contrast


Revision C

2022-01-23

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – C - compare & contrast

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Dictionary.com:

ออกเสียง compare = “kuhm-PAIR”

ออกเสียง contrast – verb = “Kuhn-TRAST” or “KON-trast” 

                              -  noun = “KON-trast”

 

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expressions:

compare & contrast

These words are often confused, 

perhaps because they are related in meaning. 

 

To compare is to examine 

in order to note similarities more than differences

to contrastis to set in opposition 

in order to show differences more than similarities

 

Idioms are compare to and compare with.

As a verb, contrastis usually followed by with; 

as a noun contrastoften takes between. 

 

The phrase “in contrast”may be followed by to or with.

Example:

“How can you comparea man with (or to) a mouse?” 

“It is easy to contrast one’s life in peace with that in war.” 

“Let’s compare this hat with that one.” 

“The contrast between yesterday and today is astonishing.

 

Dictionary.com:

USAGE NOTE FOR COMPARE

The traditional rule about which preposition to use after compare 

states that compare should be followed by to 

when it points out likenesses or similarities 

between two apparently dissimilar persons or things

She compared his handwriting to knotted string. 

 

Compare should be followed by with, the rule says, 

when it points out similarities or differences 

between two entities of the same general class

The critic compared the paintings in the exhibit with magazine photographs. 

This rule is by no means always observed, however, 

even in formal speech and writing.

The usual practice is 

to employ to for likenesses between members of different classes: 

A language may be compared to a living organism. 

 

But when the comparison is between members of the same category, both to and with are used

The article compares the Chicago of today with (or to the Chicago of the 1890s. 

 

Following the past participle compared, 

either to or with is used 

regardless of whether differences or similarities are stressed 

or whether the things compared belong to the same or different classes: 

Compared with (or to ) the streets of 18th-century London, New York's streets are models of cleanliness and order.

 

Dictionary.com:

What Are Good Transition Words?

Published April 8, 2020

Imagine this:

you’re writing an essay and just jotted down a particularly insightful point. You’ve backed it up with examples

and are feeling pretty good about your work … so, what comes next?

 

If you answered, “a transition word,” you’re right! 

Transition words do the hard work of connecting 

one sentence or paragraph to the next

A transition—which sometimes requires a phrase or full sentence

—can help make a shift in relationship, space, or time

You can pivot from one section to another

use a transition from one supporting detail to another,

or segue into the ending. 

A transition word basically signals the coming of additional information or a conclusion.

How to compare and contrast

Some transition words and phrases are used to compare and contrast.

These include comparable toin the same way, 

similarly, as opposed to, and on the other hand. 

 

When you’ve made a point and are ready 

to state something similar or different to the point you’ve made, 

you’d use one of these. (Click on each term for even more options.)

You can also use:

  • just the same
  • likewise
  • in the same manner
  • in contrast to
  • versus

Let’s look at an example of this type of transition

In Freakonomics, Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner 

discuss a cheating ring of (hang on to your hats) public school teachers. 

To catch the cheaters

retests were administered in a select group of classrooms:

The results were as compelling as the teaching algorithm had predicted. 

In the classrooms chosen as controls, where no cheating was suspected, scores stayed about the same or even rose. 

In contrast, the students with the teachers identified as cheaters scored far worse.

 

The transition phrase In contrast joins the two opposite examples for a side-by-side comparison.

 

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language:

com·par′er n.

Usage Note: 

A common rule of usage holds that 

compare to and compare with are not interchangeable

To implies "in the direction of" or "toward a target," 

and so 

comparing Miriam to a summer's day 

means treating the summer's day as a standard or paragon 

and noting that 

Miriam, though a different kind of entity, is similar in some ways to it. 

With implies "together" or "side by side," 

and so 

comparing the Senate version of the bill with the House version 

means treating them symmetrically, 

as two examples of the same kind of entity

and noting both the similarities and the differences

It's a subtle distinction, and most writers accept both prepositions 

for both kinds of comparison

though with a preference that aligns with the traditional rule.

 

The 2014 Usage Survey presented 

He compared the runner to a gazelle, 

where the items are in different categories 

and the first is likened to the second

the Panelists found to more acceptable than with 

by a large margin (95 percent to 55 percent). 

 

The margin of acceptability was slimmer for a sentence about assessing the similarities and differences between two comparable items: 

The police compared the forged signature with the original. 

The acceptability of with was only slightly greater than that of to 

(84 percent to 76 percent), 

and with might have been even more acceptable 

had the sentence been about two forged signatures.

 

Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary:

com•par′er, n.

usage: 

A traditional rule states that compare should be followed by to 

when it points out likenesses between unlike persons or things

She compared his handwriting to knotted string. 

 

It should be followed by with, the rule says,

when it examines two entities of the same general class for similarities or differences

She compared his handwriting with mine. 

This rule, though sensible, is not always followed, 

even in formal speech and writing

Common practice is to use to for likeness between members of different classes

to compare a language to a living organism. 

Between members of the same category, both to and with are used: 

Compare the Chicago of today with (or tothe Chicago of the 1890s. 

After the past participle compared, either to or with is used regardless of the type of comparison.

 

Collins COBUILD English Usage:

compare

1. 'compare'

When you compare things, 

you consider how they are different and how they are similar.

It's interesting to compare the two products.

When compare has this meaning, you can use either with or to after it

For example

you can say 'It's interesting to compare this product with the old one' or 'It's interesting to compare this product to the old one'.

The study compared Russian children with those in Britain.

I haven't got anything to compare it to.

 

2. 'be compared to'

If one thing is compared to or can be compared to another thing, 

people say they are similar.

As a writer he is compared frequently to Dickens.

A computer virus can be compared to a biological virus.

When you use compare like this, you must use to after it. 

Don't use 'with'.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Choose the Right Synonym for compare & contrast

Verb

Compare, Contrast, Collate 

mean to set side by side in order to show differences and likenesses

 

Compare impliesan aim of showing relative values or excellences

by bringing out characteristic qualities whether similar or divergent.

          compared the convention facilities of the two cities

Contrast  implies an emphasis on differences.  

          contrasted the computerized system with the old filing cards

Collate impliesminute and critical inspection in order to note points of agreement or divergence.

          data from districts around the country will be collated 

 

Common Errors in English Usage Dictionary:

compare to & compare with

These are sometimes interchangeable

but when you are stressing similarities between the items compared,

the most common word is “to”

"She compared his home-made wine to toxic waste.” 

 

If you are examining both similarities and differences,

use “with”

“The teacher compared Steve’s exam with Robert’s to see whether they had cheated.

The A-Z of Correct English Common Errors in English Dictionary

compare to & compare with

Both constructions are acceptable 

but many people still prefer to use compare with’.

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