2022-01-22 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – C - common & mutual & ordinary


Revision C

2022-01-22      

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – C - common & mutual & ordinary

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Dictionary.com:

ออกเสียง common = “KOM-uhn”

ออกเสียง mutual = “MYOO-choo-uhl”

ออกเสียง ordinary = “AWR-dn-er-ee”

 

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expressions:

common & mutual

These words are loosely interchangeable

but they do have distinct meanings. 

Common refers to something shared by two or more persons 

(our common heritage).

Mutual refers to something done or felt 

by each of the two persons toward the other: 

“Jack and Bill share a mutual dislike.”

 

Many good speakers and writers, however, 

do not preserve this distinction.

 

Dictionary.com:

ORIGIN OF MUTUAL

First recorded in 1470–80; from Middle French mutuel, from Latin mūtu(us) “mutual, reciprocal” (equivalent to mūt(āre) “to change”; see mutate)-uus adjective suffix) + Middle French -el (from Latin -ālis ) -al1

 

Dictionary.com:

SYNONYM STUDY FOR MUTUAL

Mutual, reciprocal agree in the idea of an exchange or balance 

between two or more persons or groups.

 

Mutual indicates an exchange of a feeling, obligation, etc., 

between two or more people

or an interchange of some kind between persons or things

mutual esteem; in mutual agreement. 

Reciprocal indicates a relation in which one act, thing, feeling, etc., balances or is given in return for another

reciprocal promises or favors.

 

Dictionary.com:

HISTORICAL USAGE OF MUTUAL

The earliest (15th century) and still a current 

meaning of mutual is “reciprocal,”

specifying the relation of two or more persons or things to each other

Their admiration is mutual. 

Teachers and students sometimes suffer from a mutual misunderstanding. 

Mutual soon developed the sense ofhaving in common, shared”: 

Their mutual objective is peace. 

 

This latter sense has been in use since the 16th century 

and is entirely standard

It is occasionally criticized, not on the grounds of ambiguity 

but on the grounds that the later sense development 

is somehow wrong. 

 

Mutual in the sense of “shared”may have been encouraged by 

the title of Charles Dickens's novel Our Mutual Friend (1864–65),

but Dickens was not the innovator. 

 

The fact that common also has the sense ordinary, unexceptional” 

and “coarse, vulgar” 

may have contributed to the use of mutual instead of common 

in designating a shared friend.

 

Collins English Dictionary:

mutualityˈmutualness noun

ˈmutually adv

Usage

The use of mutual to mean common to 

or shared by two or more parties 

was formerly considered incorrect, 

but is now acceptable.

 

Tautologous use of mutual should be avoided

cooperation (not mutual cooperationbetween the two countries

 

Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary

mu`tu•al′i•ty (-ˈæl ɪ ti) noun

mu′tu•al•ly, adv.

usage: 

The earliest (15th century) meaning of mutual is “reciprocal”:

Teachers and students sometimes suffer from mutual misunderstanding.

 

By the 16th century mutual had developed the additional sense 

held in common, shared”:

Their mutual objective is peace

This use is occasionally criticized, 

on the grounds that 

the later sense development was somehow wrong.

 

Dictionary.com:

ORIGIN OF COMMON

First recorded in 1250–1300; Middle English comun, from Anglo-French, Old French, from Latin commūnis “common,” 

presumably originallysharing common duties,” 

akin to mūnia “duties of an office,” mūnus “task, duty, gift,” from an unattested base moin-, cognate with mean2; cf. com-immune

 

Dictionary.com:

SYNONYM STUDY FOR COMMON

Common, vulgar, ordinary 

refer, often with derogatory connotations of cheapness or inferiority

to what isusual or most often experienced

Common applies to what is accustomed, usually experienced

or inferior, to the opposite of what is exclusive or aristocratic

The park is used by the common people. 

 

Vulgar properly means belonging to the people, 

or characteristic of common people

it connotes low taste, coarseness, or ill breeding

the vulgar view of things; 

vulgar in manners and speech. 

 

Ordinary refers to what is to be expected 

in the usual order of things

it means average or below average

That is a high price for something of such ordinary quality.

 

Dictionary.com:

MORE ABOUT ORDINARY

What does ordinary mean?

Ordinary means usual, normal, or of no special quality.

Sometimes, the word is used in a negative way 

to mean somewhat inferior, below average, or just plain

—in much the same way as the word mediocre.

 

Describing something as ordinary usually means that 

it’s very basic or commonplace

—there’s nothing special or unusual about it

An ordinary day is one in which nothing unexpected happens.

 

You could describe a person as ordinary 

to mean that they’re normal, 

as in People treat me like a celebrity, but I’m just an ordinary guy. 

But using ordinary to describe a person can also be an insult, 

as in I don’t know what you see in him—he’s so ordinary.  

 

Ordinary can also be used as a noun (especially in the ordinary

referring to the common or usual state or condition

This is how the word is used in the phrase out of the ordinary, 

which means unusual, uncommon, or exceptional.

Example: 

He was so ordinary it was almost suspicious—no one’s that normal!

 

Where does ordinary come from?

The first records of the word ordinary come from the 1200s

It comes from the Latin ordinārius

meaning regular” or “of the usual order.”

Ordinary things are regular—they exist in the usual order of things

The adverb form ordinarily 

meansusually” or “in an ordinary manner.”

 

Describing something as extraordinary 

doesn’t mean it’s “extra ordinary” or “extra normal” 

but instead means it’s “beyond ordinary

—it’s unusual, exceptional, or out of the ordinary.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Choose the Right Synonym for common

Adjective

Common, Ordinary, Plain, Familiar, Popular, Vulgar 

mean generally met with and not in any way special, strange, or unusual.

 

Common implies usual everyday quality or frequency of occurrence 

 a common error   

lacked common honesty  

and may additionally suggest inferiority or coarseness.  

common manners

Ordinary stresses conformance in quality or kind with the regular order of things.  

an ordinary pleasant summer day   

a very ordinary sort of man

Plain is likely to suggest homely simplicity.  

plain hard-working people

Familiar stresses the fact of being generally known and easily recognized.  

a familiar melody

Popular applies to what is accepted by or prevalent among people in general sometimes in contrast to upper classes or special groups.  

a writer of popular romances

Vulgar otherwise similar to Popular, is likely to carry derogatory connotations (as of inferiority or coarseness).  

souvenirs designed to appeal to the vulgar taste 

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Word History

Is It 'Ornery' Cuss or 'Ordinary' Cuss?

Their history isn't that difficult to deal with

Modern lexicographers tend to avoid 

inserting their own character into definitions; 

 

it's difficult enough to accurately define the messiness 

that is the English language without having to worry about 

whether one's own foibles or prejudices are muddying the semantic waters

Samuel Johnson, famous for the occasional definitional bon mot 

(he defined lexicographer as "a harmless drudge")

gets a pass, but he's not all that modern. 

 

However, every so often we come across a definition 

which, although it would probably not pass muster in today's dictionaries, makes this sort of editorializing seem reasonable

As when Bret Harte defined ornery 

as "Corruption of 'ordinary,' with a spice of contempt."

 

Harte was a poet and short story writer, not a lexicographer, 

but near the end of the 19th century included 

a "Glossary of Far-Western Terms" in one of his books. 

 

Most of his definitions are rather straightforward and dry; 

the 'spice of contempt' addition 

is just the sort of short and poetic turn of phrase 

that manages to convey more information 

than heaps of technical jargon would.

It is a memorable definition, and all the better for being largely accurate.

 

The English-speaking people have been 

shortening ordinary in one manner or another since at least the early 16th century. 

It may be found rendered as ornaryornarie, and in several other ways.

 

Throughout the 19th century 

ornery is still occasionally found as a simple synonym for ordinary.

 

As the word became increasingly common 

it took on a slightly more opprobrious cast, 

less often being used to mean "commonplace,

and more frequently meaning "irritable, cantankerous.

Ornery was also frequently used by writers 

who wished to imbue a character's dialogue with a rustic quality.

 

The word has now moved quite far afield from its roots

and bears little semantic resemblance to its ordinary origin.

We offer several definitions for the word

including "having an irritable disposition," 

"difficult to deal with or control," and 

"having or showing a playful tendency to cause trouble." 

We make no mention of Harte's "spice of contempt," 

for, tempting though it might be

allowing definers such artistic license can only lead to trouble.

 

Collins COBUILD English Usage: 

common

If something is common, it is found in large numbers or it happens often.

His name was Hansen, a common name in Norway.

These days, it is common to see adults returning to study.

The comparative and superlative forms of common 

are usually more common and most common

Commonest is sometimes used instead of more common 

in front of a noun.

Job sharing has become more common.

The disease is most common in adults over 40.

Stress is one of the commonest causes of insomnia.

Be Careful!
Don't use a that-clause after common.

Don't say, for example

'It is quite common that motorists fall asleep while driving'. 

You say 'It is quite common for motorists to fall asleep while driving'.

It is common for a child to become deaf after even a moderate ear infection.

 

Collins COBUILD English Usage: 

mutuality, ˈmutualness n

ˈmutually adv

Usage: 

The use of mutual to mean common to or shared by 

two or more parties was formerly considered incorrect

but is now acceptable.

Tautologous use of mutual should be avoided

cooperation (not mutual cooperationbetween the two countries.

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