2022-01-13 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – C – certain & certainly – sure & surely


Revision C

2022-01-13

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – C – certain & certainly – sure & surely

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Dictionary.com:

ออกเสียงcertain = “SUR-tn”

ออกเสียง certainly = “SUR-th-lee”

ออกเสียง sure = “SHOOR” or “SHUR

ออกเสียง surely = “SHOOR-lee” or “SHUR-lee”

 

Dictionary.com:

certain

WHEN TO USE

What are other ways to say certain?

Someone who is certain of something 

is free from doubt or reservation about it. 

 

What are other ways to say sure?

Someone who is sure of something 

is free from doubt about its reliability or character.

How does sure compare to synonyms certainconfident, or positive?

 

The A-Z of Correct English Common Errors in English Dictionary:

Certain or curtain?

CERTAIN means sure. 

Are you CERTAIN that he apologized? 

CURTAINS are window drapes

Do draw the CURTAINS. 

 

Note that the c sounds likein certain 

and like in curtain

See SOFT C AND SOFT G.

 

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expressions:

certain, certainly, sure, surely

Certain and sure are adjectives;

Certainly & surelyare adverbs, 

Say, I  certainly (or surely) am going” and

“Bob is a certain (or sure) winner in that contest.”

Certainly and surely are rarelymisused

but sure and certain constantly occur in statements requiring adverbs.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Choose the Right Synonym for certain & sure

Adjective

Sure, Certain, Positive, Cocksure

mean having no doubt or uncertainty.

 

Sure usually stresses the subjective or intuitive feeling of assurance.  

felt sure that I had forgotten something

 

Certain may apply to a basing of a conclusion or conviction 

on definite grounds or indubitable evidence.  

police are certain about the cause of the fire

 

Positive intensifies sureness or certainty 

and may imply opinionated conviction or forceful expression of it.  

I'm positive that's the person I saw  

 

Cocksure implies presumptuous or carelesspositiveness.  

you're always so cocksure about everything 

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Sure vs. Surely: Usage Guide

Adverb

Most commentators consider the adverb 

sure to be something less thancompletely standard

 

surely is usually recommended as a substitute

Our current evidence shows, however, 

that sure and surely have become differentiated in use.

 

Sure is used in much more informal contexts than surely. 

It is used as a simple intensive  

I can never know how much I bored her, but, be certain

she sure amused me  — Norman Mailer 

 

and, because it connotes strong affirmation

it is used when the speaker or writer expects to beagreed with.  

it's a moot point whether politicians are less venal than in Twain's day.

But they're sure as the devil more intrusive  — Alan Abelson  

 

he sure gets them to play  — D. S. Looney 

Surelylike sure, is used as a simple intensive  

surely don't want to leave the impression 

that I had an unhappy childhood  — E. C. 

 

Welsh but it occurs in more formal contexts than sure. 

Unlike sure it may be used neutrally

—the reader or hearer may or may not agree  

it would surely be possible, within a few years, 

to program a computer to construct a grammar  — Noam Chomsky 

 

and it is often used when the writer is trying to persuade.  

surely a book on the avant-garde cannot be so conventional  — Karl Shapiro

 

Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary:

sure′ness, n.

usage: 

Both sure and surely are used as intensifying adverbs 

with the sense “undoubtedlycertainly.” 

In this use, sure is generally informal 

and occurs mainly in speech and written representations of speech 

and is likely to be criticized in other contexts

It sure is hot in here. 

I sure wouldn't want to be in your place. 

 

Surely is used in this sense in all varieties of speech and writing

The law was surely meant to apply to both rich and poor. 

See also quick, slow.

 

Collins COBUILD English Usage:

certain & sure 

1. having no doubts

If you are certain or sure about something

you have no doubts about it.

He felt certain that she would disapprove.

I'm sure she's right.

 

2. definite truths

If it is certain that something is true

it is definitely true

If it is certain that something will happen

it will definitely happen.

It is certain that he did not ask for the original of the portrait.

It seemed certain that they would succeed.

Be Careful!
Don't say that it is 'sure' that something is true or will happen.

 

3. 'be certain to' and 'be sure to'

Instead of saying that it is certain that someone 

or something will do something, 

you can say that they are certain to do it or are sure to do it.

I'm waiting for Cynthia. She's certain to be late.

The growth in demand is certain to drive up the price.

These fears are sure to go away as the baby gets older.

The telephone stopped ringing. 'It's sure to ring again,' Halle said.

 

Instead of saying that it is certain that someone 

will be able to do something, 

you often say that they can be certain of doing it 

or can be sure of doing it.

I chose this hospital so I could be certain of having the best care possible.

You can always be sure of controlling one thing -- the strength with which you hit the ball.

 

4. emphasis

Don't use words such as 'very' or 'extremely' 

in front of certain or sure. 

If you want to emphasize that someone has no doubts 

or that something is true

you use words such as absolutely and completely.

We are not yet absolutely certain that this report is true.

Whether it was directed at Eddie or me, I couldn't be completely certain.

Can you be absolutely sure that a murder has been committed?

She felt completely sure that she was pregnant.

 

5. negative structuresSure is more common that 'certainin negative structures.

'Are you going to the party tonight?' – 'I'm not sure. Are you?'

 

Collins COBUILD English Usage:

certainly

1. emphasizing and agreeing

Certainly is used to emphasize statements. 

You often use certainly when you are agreeing with something 

that has been said or confirming that something is true.

It certainly looks wonderful, doesn't it?

Ellie was certainly a student at the university but I'm not sure about her brother.

Be Careful!
Don't confuse certainly and surely

You use surely to express disagreement or surprise.

Surely you care about what happens to her.

 

Both British and American speakers use certainly 

to respond positively to a question or statement.

'Do you see this as a good result?' – 'Oh, certainly.'

American speakers also use surely in this way.

'Can I have a drink?' – 'Why, surely.'

 

2. position in sentence

Certainly is usually used to modify verbs.

If there is no auxiliary verb, 

you put certainly in front of the verbunless the verb is be.

It certainly gave some of her visitors a fright.

If the verb is becertainly can go either in front of it or after it. 

It usually goes after it.

That certainly isn't true.

If there is an auxiliary verb

you usually put certainly after the auxiliary verb.

He'd certainly proved his point.

If there is more than one auxiliary verb

you usually put certainly after the first one. 

Certainly can also go in front of the first auxiliary verb.

He will certainly be able to offer you advice.

The roadway certainly could be widened.

If you use an auxiliary verb without main verb

you put certainly in front of the auxiliary verb.

'I don't know whether I've succeeded or not.' – 'Oh, you certainly have.'

You can also put certainly at the beginning of a sentence.

Certainly it was not the act of a sane man.

 

3. 'almost certainly'

If you think that something is true, 

but you are not quite sure about it, 

you can use almost certainly.

She will almost certainly be left with some brain damage.

Be Careful!
Don't put 'nearly' in front of certainly.

 

Collins COBUILD English Usage:

surely – definitely – certainly – naturally

1. 'surely'

You use surely for emphasis when you are objecting 

to something that has been said or done.

'I can have it ready for next week.' – 'Surely you can get it done sooner than that?'

Their lawyers claim that they have not broken any rules, but surely this is not good practice.

 

2. 'definitely' and 'certainly'

Don't use 'surely' simply to give strong emphasis to a statement. 

Use definitely.

They were definitely not happy.

The call definitely came from your phone.

 

In British English

you don't use 'surely' when you are agreeing with 

something that has been said, or 

confirming that something is true

Use certainly.

Ellie was certainly a student at the university but I'm not sure about her brother.

'You like him, don't you?' – 'I certainly do.'

 

American speakers use both surely and certainly 

to agree with requests and statements.

'It is still a difficult world for women.' – 'Oh, certainly.'

Surely, yes, I agree with that.

Don't use 'surely' to say emphatically 

that something will happen in the future. 

Use definitely or certainly.

The conference will definitely be postponed.

If nothing is done, there will certainly be problems.

 

3. 'naturally'

Don't use 'surely' to emphasize 

that something is what you would expect in particular circumstances

Use naturally.

His sister was crying, so naturally Sam was upset.

Naturally, some of the information will be irrelevant.

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