2021-01-09 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด S – Shall & will

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2021-01-09

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด S – Shall & will

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Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง Shall = ‘SHALunstressed= ‘shuhl

ออกเสียง will = ‘WIL

Dictionary.com

WORDS OFTEN CONFUSED WITH SHALL

The traditional rule of usage guidesdates from the 17th century

and says that to denote future time

shall is used in the first person(I shall leave. We shall go)

and will in all other persons(You will be there, won't you? He will drive us to the airport. They will not be at the meeting).

The rule continues that to express determination,

will is used in the first person (We will win the battle)

and shall in the other two persons (You shall not bully us. They shall not pass).

Whether this rule was ever widely observed is doubtful.

Today, will is used overwhelmingly in all three persons

and in all types of speech and writing both for the simple future

and to express determination.

Shall has some use in all persons,

chiefly in formal writing or speaking, to express determination:

I shall return. We shall overcome.

Shall also occurs in the language of laws and directives:

All visitors shall observe posted regulations.

Most educated native users of American English

do not follow the textbook rule

in making a choice between shall and will.

See also should.

COLLINS ENGLISH DICTIONARY

USAGE FOR SHALL

The usual rule given for the use of shall and will

is that where the meaning is one of simple futurity,

shall is used for the first person of the verb and

will for the second and third:

I shall go tomorrow; they will be there now.

Where the meaning involves command, obligation, or determination,

the positions are reversed:

it shall be done; I will definitely go.

However, shall has come to be largely neglected in favor of will,

which has become the commonest form of the future in all three persons

Collins English Dictionary

shall

Usage:

The usual rule given for the use of shall and will

is that where the meaning is one of simple futurity,

shall is used for the first personof the verb

and will for the secondand third:

I shall go tomorrow; they will be there now.

Where the meaning involves command, obligation, or determination,

the positions are reversed:

it shall be done; I will definitely go.

However, shall has come to be largely neglected in favor of will,

which has become the commonest form of the future in all three persons

Collins COBUILD English Usage

Shallwill

1. 'shall' and 'will'

Shall and will are used to make statementsand ask questions

about the future.

Shall and will arenot usually pronounced in full after a pronoun.

When writing down what someone has said,

the contraction 'll is usually used after the pronoun,

instead of writing shall or will in full.

He'll come back.

'They'll be late,' he said.

Shall and will have the negative forms shall not and will not.

In speech, these are usually shortenedto shan't /ʃɑːnt/ and won't /wəʊnt/.

Shan't is rather old-fashioned, and is rarely used in American English.

I shan't ever do it again.

You won't need a coat.

It used to be considered correct to write shall after I or we,

and will after any other pronoun or noun phrase.

Now, most people write will after I and we,

and this is not regarded as incorrect,

although I shall and we shall are still sometimes used.

I hope some day I will meet you.

We will be able to help.

I shall be out of the office on Monday.

There are a few special cases in which you use shall,rather than 'will':

2. suggestions

You can make a suggestion about what you

and someone else should do

by asking a question beginning with 'Shall we...?'

Shall we go out for dinner?

You can also suggest what you and someone else should do

by using a sentence that begins with 'Let's...'and ends with '...shall we?'

Let's have a cup of tea, shall we?

3. asking for advice

You can use shall I or shall we

when you are asking for suggestions or advice.

What shall I give them for dinner?

Where shall we meet?

4. offering

You can say 'Shall I... ?'

when you are offering to do something.

Shall I shut the door?

Will also has some special uses:

5. requests

You can use will you to make a request.

Will you take these upstairs for me, please?

Don't tell anyone, will you?

6. invitations

You can also use will you or the negativeform won't you

to make an invitation. Won't you is very formal and polite.

Will you stay to lunch?

Won't you sit down, Sir?

7. ability

Will is sometimes used to say that someoneor something

is able to do something.

This will get rid of your headache.

The car won't start.

Be Careful!

You don't normally use 'shall' or 'will'

in clauses beginning with words and expressions

such as when, before, or as soon as.

Instead you use the present simple.

Don't say, for example, 'I'll call as soon as I shall get home'.

Say 'I'll call as soon as I get home'.

Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary

usage:

The traditional rule of usage says that future time is indicated

by shall in the first person(We shall explain)

and will in the other persons(You will be there, won't you?).

The rule continues that determination

is expressed by will in the first person (We will win the battle)

and shall in the other persons (They shall not bully us).

Whether this rule was ever widely observed is doubtful.

Today, will is used overwhelmingly in all persons,

in all types of speech and writing,

both for the simple future and to express determination.

shall has some use in all persons, chiefly in formal contexts,

to express determination:

I shall return. We shall overcome.

shall also occurs in the language of laws and directives:

All visitors shall observe posted regulations. See also should.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Shall vs. Will: Usage Guide

From the reams of pronouncements

written about the distinction between shall and will

—dating back as far as the 17th century

—it is clear that the rules laid down

have never very accurately reflected actual usage.

The nationalistic statements of 18th and 19th century British grammarians,

who commonly cited the misuses of the Irish, the Scots,

and occasionally the Americans,

suggest that the traditional rules may have come closest to the usage

of southern England.

Some modern commentators believe that English usage

is still the closest to the traditionally prescribed norms.

Most modern commentators allow that will

is more common in nearly all uses.

The entries for shall and will in this dictionary show current usage.

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,

Usage Note:

The traditional rules for using shall and will

prescribe a highly complicated pattern of use

in which the meanings of the forms change

according to the person of the subject.

In the first person, shall is used to indicate simple futurity:

I shall (not will) have to buy another ticket.

In the second and third persons,

the same sense of futurity is expressedby will:

The comet will (not shall) return in 87 years.

You will (not shall) probably encounter some heavy seas when you round the point.

The use of will in the first person

and of shall in the secondand third

may express determination, promise, obligation, or permission,

depending on the context.

Thus, I will leave tomorrow indicatesthat the speaker is determined to leave;

You and she shall leave tomorrow is likely to be interpreted as a command.

The sentence You shall have your money expressesa promise

("I will see that you get your money"),

whereas You will have your money makesa simple prediction.

Such, at least, are the traditional rules.

The English and some traditionalists about usage

are probably the only people who follow these rules

and then not with perfect consistency.

In America, people who try to adhere to them

run the risk of sounding pretentious orhaughty.

Americans normally use will to express most of the senses reserved for shall

in English usage.

Americans use shall chiefly in first person invitations and questions

that request an opinion or agreement,

such as Shall we go? and in certain fixed expressions,

such as We shall overcome.

In formal style, Americans use shall to express an explicit obligation,

as in Applicants shall provide a proof of residence,

though this sense is also expressed by must or should.

In speech the distinction that the English signal

by the choice of shall or will

may be rendered by stressing the auxiliary,

as in I will leave tomorrow ("I intend to leave");

by choosing another auxiliary,

such as must or have to;

or by using an adverb

such as certainly.

In addition to its sense of obligation,

shall can also convey high moral seriousness

that derives in part from its extensive use in the King James Bible,

as in "Righteousness shall go before him and shall set us in the way of his steps" (Ps 85:13)

and "He that shall humble himself shall be exalted" (Mt 23:12).

The prophetic overtones

that shall bears with it have no doubt led to its use in some of the loftiest rhetoric in English.

This may be why Lincoln chose to use it instead of will in the Gettysburg Address: "government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth."

See Usage Note at should.

Common Errors In English Usage Dictionary

Shall & will

Will” has almost entirely replaced shallin American English

except in legal documents and in questions

like “Shall we have red wine with the duck?"

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expression

Shall & will

Distinctions in the use of shall andwill have been broken down,

but some careful speakers still observe these principles:

  • (1)  Use shall in the first personand will in the second or third person to express future time:

“I (we) shall leave soon.”

“You (he, they) will leave soon.”

  • (2)  For expressing command or determination,

use will in the first person and shall in the second and third:

“I will speak, no matter who tries to stop me.”

“You shall speak (meaning ‘You must speak).”

  • (3) To expresswillingness, promise, or intention,

use will (same verb, different meaning) with all personal pronouns:

“I will help you now.”

 “You will be a success.”

Even so accomplished a user of language as Winston Churchill

disregarded the basic rule for using shall and will when he declared:

“We shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.”

In general, use should and would

according to recommendations for shalland will.

Both should and would also have specialized meaning,

should in the sense of obligationand

would in the sense of habitual action:

“You should to now.”

“He would take a walk every day.”

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