2022-08-11 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด H - Happen & transpire & occur


Revision H

2022-08-11

(151218-2) ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด H - Happen & transpire & occur

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Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง Happen =‘HAP-uhn’

ออกเสียง Transpire = ‘tran-SPAHYUHR

ออกเสียง Occur = ‘uh-KUR

 

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expression

Happen & transpire & occur

          These words are frequently used interchangeably

but not by careful users of language.

Happen means   “to take place” 

                            “to come to pass”:

                    “A fatal accident just happened at that intersection.”

Happen. Which originally indicated 

            the taking place of something by hap or chance

            should be used for events 

            that are spontaneous or accidental.

Occur has much the same meaning as happen 

            but is more specific as to time or event

            “His election occurred the month before.”  

That which is scheduled (prearranged) 

           may be said to take place

           that which occurs or happens 

           is more likely to be unplanned.

Transpire is a formal word 

           that means “to escape from secrecy” 

          and should not be used 

          as a synonym for happen, occur or take place.

 

Its literal meaning is “to be emitted as a vapor,” 

                                    “to breathed out.”

From this meaning

          transpire has come to suggest leaking out 

          and becoming known. 

One can ask “Has anything transpired during my absence?

           but only if he means 

           “Has any secret leaked out?” or 

            “Has anything come to light that was previously hidden or unknown?”

Since the correct use of transpire is limited,

why not always say happen, occur, 

             take place, come to pass, 

             befall, or present itself?

 

Dictionary.com:

SYNONYM STUDY FOR HAPPEN

Happen, chance, occur

refer to the taking place of an event.

Happen, which originally denoted 

         the taking place by hap or chance,

is now the most general word for coming to pass:

         Something has happened.

Chance suggests the accidental nature of an event:

         It chanced to rain that day.

Occur is often interchangeablewith happen

       but is more formal,

and is usually more specific as to time and event:

        His death occurred the following year.

 

Dictionary.com:

HAPPEN

MORE ABOUT HAPPEN

What is a basic definition of happen?

Happen means to occur

          to come to pass by chance, or to befall someone

          or something. 

Happen has several other senses as a verb.

Happen is a very general word

          that simply means to occur or take place

For example

the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln 

      happened on April 15, 1865. 

      That date is when this event took place.

  • Real-life examples

       Halloween happens on October 31. 

       Scientists run experiments to see what happens.

       Nobody knows what will happen in the future

        History is a record of what happened in the past.

  • Used in a sentence

       The police blocked off the street where the car accident happened. 

 

Happen also means to occur due to chance 

    or take place without any planning or intent.

  • Used in a sentence

        Joe happened to be standing in the exact spot where the water balloon landed. 

Happen is also used to mean to be on the receiving end 

         of an event or action, particularly 

        as a result of good or bad luck. 

This sense is usually written as “to happen to.”

  • Used in a sentence

        Sherri was terrified that something horrible had happened to her kitten.

In this sense

      an event is sometimes called a happening

      especially if it is unusual or interesting.

     A slang usage of happening is used to describean event as exciting.

  • Used in a sentence

       Summer is usually busy with happenings like beach parties. Summertime is happening!

 

Where does happen come from?

The first records of happen come from the early 1300s.

It comes from the Middle English happenen

which is formed from the older word hap

           meaning “luck” or “event,” 

          and the suffix -en

          which turns verbs into adjectives (fasten) or nouns (strengthen).

 

Dictionary.com:

HISTORICAL USAGE OF TRANSPIRE

From its earlier literal sense 

          “to escape as vapor” 

          transpire came to mean 

          “to escape from concealment, become known” in the 18th century.

 

Somewhat later, 

it developed the meaning “to occur, happen,” 

a sentence such as

          He was not aware of what had transpired yesterday 

         being taken to mean

         He was not aware of what had happened yesterday.

In spite of two centuries of use

        in all varieties of speech and writing

this now common meaning is still objected to 

by some on the grounds that 

        it arose from a misapprehension of the word's true meaning.

 

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language:

Transpire 

Usage Note: 

Transpire has been used since the mid-1700s 

in the sense "to become publicly known," 

as in 

Despite efforts to hush the matter up, it soon transpired 

that the colonels had met with the rebel leaders. 

 

While this usage has been considered standard for generations, 

it appears to be on shaky ground and could be headed for obsolescence.

In our 2001 survey, 48 percent of the Usage Panel 

rejected it in the sentence quoted above. 

 

It might be better to use a synonym

such as 

become known, leak out, or get around.  

 

The more common use of transpire 

meaning "to happen or occur" has a more troubled history

Though it dates at least to the beginning of the 1800s

language critics have condemned it 

         for more than one hundred years 

         as both pretentious and unconnected 

         to the word's original meaning, "to give offas vapor." 

 

But there is considerable evidence

that resistance to this sense of transpire is weakening. 

 

In our 1966 survey, only 38 percent of the Usage Panel 

           found it acceptable; 

in 1988, 58 percent accepted it in the sentence 

All of these events transpired after last week's announcement. 

 

In 2001, 66 percent accepted the same sentence. 

Nonetheless, many of the Panelists 

who accepted the usage also remarked 

that it was pretentious or pompous. 

This usage is easily avoided 

         by saying happen, occur, or take place instead.

 

Collins COBUILD English Usage

happen

1. 'happen'

When something happens

       it takes place without being planned.

Then a strange thing happened.

There'll be an investigation into what happened and why.

Be Careful!
Happen does not have a passive form.

Don't say, for example, 'Then a strange thing was happened'.

 

2. 'take place', 'occur'

Happen is usually used after vague words 

       like somethingthingwhat, or this.

After words with a more precise meaning

        you usually use take place or occur.

The incident had taken place many years ago.

Mrs. Brogan was in the house when the explosion occurred.

Don't say that a planned event 'happens'.

Say that it takes place.

The first meeting of the committee took place on 9 January.

The election will take place in June.

 

3. 'happen to'

When something happens to someone or something, 

it takes place and affectsthem.

I wonder what 's happened to Jeremy?

If anything happens to the car, you'll have to pay for it.

In sentences like these, 

don't use any preposition except to after happen.

You use happen in front of a to-infinitive 

         to show that something happens or exists by chance.

For example

instead of saying

         'The two people he wanted to speak to lived in the same street',

you can say 

'The two people he wanted to speak to happened to live in the same street'.

I just happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time.

If you happen to see Jane, ask her to call me.

You often use happen to be in sentences beginning with there.

For example

instead of saying 'A post office happened to be in the next street',

you say 'There happened to be a post office in the next street'.

There happened to be a policeman on the corner, so I asked him the way.

Be Careful!
In sentences like these you must use there.

Don't say, for example, 'Happened to be a post office in the next street'.

 

COLLINS ENGLISH DICTIONARY

USAGE FOR TRANSPIRE

It is often maintained that 

          transpire should not be used to mean happen or occur,

as in the event transpired late in the evening,

and that the word is properly used to mean become known,

as in it transpired later that the thief had been caught .

 

The word is, however, widely used in the former sense, 

esp. in spoken English

 

Random House Kerneman Webster’s college Dictionary:

tran•spir′a•ble, adj.

tran•spir′a•to`ry (-ˈspaɪr əˌtɔr i, -ˌtoʊr i) adj.

usage: 

From its earlier literal senseto escape as vapor” 

transpire came to meanto escape from concealment

become known” in the 18th century. 

Somewhat later, it developed the meaning “to occur, happen,” 

a sentence such as 

       He was not aware of what had transpired yesterday 

       being taken to mean 

       He was not aware of what had happened yesterday. 

In spite of two centuries of use in all varieties of speech and writing, 

this now common meaning is still criticized 

by some on the grounds that 

        it arose from a misapprehension of the word's original meaning.

 

Collins COBUID English Dictionary: 

USAGE FOR OCCUR

It is usually regarded as incorrect 

        to talk of pre-arranged events occurring or happening :

the wedding took place (not occurred or happenedin the afternoon

 

Collins COBUILD English Usage

occur

You can say that an event occurs.

       The accident occurred at 8:40 a.m.

       Mistakes are bound to occur.

However, you only use occur to talk about events 

       which are not planned.

Occur is a fairly formal word.

In conversation and in less formal writing, you usually say that an event happens.

You might have noticed what happened on Tuesday.

A curious thing has happened.

Be Careful!
Don't say that a planned event 'occurs' or 'happens'.

Say that it takes place.

The first meeting of this committee took place on 9 January.

These lessons took place twice a week.

Don't use 'occur to' to say that someone is affected by an event.

Don't say, for example, 'I wonder what's occurred to Jane'.

Say 'I wonder what's happened to Jane'.

She no longer cared what happened to her.

It couldn't have happened to a nicer man.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Can transpire mean 'to occur'?: Usage Guide

Sense 1 of transpire is 

         the frequent whipping boy of those 

         who suppose sense 2 to be the only meaning of the word. 

Sense 1 appears to have developed in the late 18th century; 

        it was well enough known to have been used by Abigail Adams 

        in a letter to her husband in 1775.  

        there is nothing new transpired since I wrote you last  

         — Abigail Adams 

       Noah Webster recognized the new sense in his dictionary of 1828. 

Transpire was evidently a popular word with 19th century journalists; 

sense 1 turns up in such pretentiously worded statements 

as "The police drill will transpire under shelter to-day 

      in consequence of the moist atmosphere prevailing." 

 

Around 1870 the sense began to be attacked as a misuse 

          on the grounds of etymology, 

          and modern critics echo the damnation of 1870. 

 

Sense 1 has been in existence for about two centuries; 

          it is firmly established as standard

         it occurs now primarily in serious prose

         not the ostentatiously flamboyant prose 

         typical of 19th century journalism.

 

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Did You Know?

Transpire (based on Latin spirare, meaning "to breathe") 

was originally used technically 

        to describe the passage of vapor 

        through the pores of a membrane (such as the skin). 

 

From this use developed the figurative sense: 

          "to escape from secrecy" or "to become known." 

That sense was used in ambiguous contexts 

           and often meant "to happen" or "to take place."

 

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

The Meaning of Occur and the Spelling of Its Forms

Occur has three meanings. 

          It means "to be found or met with; appear,"

as in "a phenomenon that occurs around the world";

it means "to come into existence; happen," 

          as in "an event that occurred on Friday";

and it means "to come to mind," 

          as in "it occurs to me that the word is quite useful."

It's an unusual-looking word, being so small 

          but with two c's up against each other, 

          and then just a simple r at the end. 

         The r is doubled, though, for the past tenseoccurred.

          And the double r continues in the present participle: occurring.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Commonly Confused

'Recur' and 'Reoccur': A Subtle Difference

Both words mean "to happen again," 

but one suggests frequent or periodic repetition

 

What to Know

Both recur and reoccur can mean 

          "to happen or appear again." 

Reoccur is most often used in this way. 

Recur is used in this way but also suggests 

          periodic or frequent repetition.

 

In any pair of very similar words, 

an extra syllable in one of them

          is almost certain to draw criticism:

 

think of converse and conversate,

          preventive and preventative,

         whoever and whosoever.

 

But sometimes, subtle shades of meaning 

between very similar words can be discerned, 

and greater precision comes from knowing the difference.

 

Such is the case with recur and reoccur.

 

Origins of Recur and Reoccur (and Occur)

These two words share similar etymologies 

           as well as similar meanings;

their ultimate root is the Latin verb currere meaning “to run,”

         making their literal meanings “to run again.”

Recur is the older word in English, 

first appearing in the early 1500s and 

derived straight from the Classical Latin recurrere.

 

Similarly, Latin’s occurrere 

       means “to run against” or “to run into” 

       (meaning “to encounter”), 

        and it came to English as occur in the late 1400s.

Reoccur was formed by English speakers

        who combined familiar Latin parts in the 1700s.

 

The similar word 

concur etymologically means “to run together” or “to run with.” 

Recourse came through French on its way to English, 

and, like recur, derives from recurrere.

 

Recur Usually Implies Frequency

Both recur and reoccur 

        can mean simply “to happen or appear again,”

and this is the way that reoccur is most often used.

Recur can suggest a periodic or frequent repetition 

        in addition to having the same basic meaning as reoccur:   

 

Recurrence and reoccurrence function in similar ways:

 

Here, reoccurrence simply means 

        that the muscle pull had happened before; 

if recurrence had been used

        it could have suggested that 

        the player had had the same injury more than once before.

 

This does not quite mean that 

      reoccurrence can only mean one repetition

rather, reoccurrence tends to imply nothing about repetition, whereas recurrence is likely to.

 

Even though these words sound alike and trace back to the same roots

we should also recognize that 

the habits of usage have taken their course.

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