2022-08-09 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด H – Handicap & hindrance


Revision H

2022-08-09

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด H – Handicap & hindrance

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Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง handicap = ‘HAN-dee-kap’

ออกเสียง handicapped = ‘HAN-dee-kapt’

ออกเสียง hindrance = ‘HIN-druhns’

 

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expression

The word handicap (derived from a game of wagering 

in which participants put their hands in their caps 

and withdrew varying amounts of money

most often is used to mean “disadvantage” or “disability”:

“His thin voice is a handicap in speaking to large crowds.”

“The player was handicapped by bruised ribs.”

 

hindrance is something that impedes,  prevents, or stops;

it acts as a check or restraint of some kind:

“His lack of money is a hindrance in the development of his business.”

 

A severely handicapped child 

            is hindered from pursuing the normal activities of children. 

 

You will discover, perhaps, 

           that youth and inexperience 

           are hindrances to finding a job, 

          but neither is necessarily a handicap.

 

Abused, Confused, & Misused Words by Mary Embree

Handicap means

           hinder, impede, incapacitate

           to place at a disadvantage:

           His handicap was being born into poverty.

Not to be confused with:

handicraft = a work that requires both manual and artistic skill

handiwork = work done by hand

 

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language

Usage Note:

Although handicapped is widely used

            in both law and everyday speech

            to refer to people having physical or mental disabilities,

 

those described by the word 

             tend to prefer the expressions disabled

            or people with disabilities.

 

Handicapped may imply 

            a helplessness that is not suggested 

            by the more forthright disabled.

 

It is also felt that 

            some stigma may attach to the word handicapped

            because of its origin in the phrase

 

hand in cap, 

          actually derived from a game of chance 

          but sometimes mistakenly believed 

          to involve the image of a beggar. 

See Usage Note at disabled.

 

Collins English Dictionary:

Usage:

Nowadays the use of the word handicapped

           to describe people with disabilities 

           is generally considered inappropriate.

It is preferable to refer to someone 

          as having a disability and 

          to talk about people with disabilities

 

Collins COBUILD English Usage

Disabledhandicapped

Someone who is disabled has

            an illness, injury or condition

            that restricts the way they can live,

            especially by making it difficult for them to move about.

There are many practical problems 

            encountered by disabled people in the workplace.

Some people use handicapped with this meaning, 

            but many people find this offensive.

The most sensitive ways 

             of referring to people with 

             a restricting physical condition

            are to call them people with disabilities 

            or people with special needs.

Those who will gain the most 

are people with disabilities and their careers.

Employers should pay for the training 

of young people with special needs.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Handicap

This story begins more than 400 years ago 

            with a technique called "hand in cap"

            - which was a method for bartering items 

            of unequal value. 

           As part of that transaction, 

an umpire would propose a sum of money 

          that the person with the more valuable item 

         should receive to make the deal fair. 

At that point, 

            the two barterers would deposit money into a hat, 

            reach into it, and then withdraw their hands 

            either holding money or not 

            to indicate whether they accepted the terms of the deal.

By the late 17th century, 

            the word had morphed a bit, 

            and the concept of making a lopsided contest 

            more equitable was being used at the racetrack. 

 

Horses were handicapped 

          - given additional weight 

          - before the race.

From there, the word developed its more recent sense: 

"a disadvantage that makes achievement unusually difficult."

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Definition: 

a race or contest in which an artificial advantage 

           is given 

           or disadvantage imposed on a contestant 

           to equalize chances of winning

Yes, handicap does come from “hand in cap.

”But no, it does not refer to maimed veterans of war, 

who were granted the right to beg on the streets on London, 

with cap in hand. 

 

Handicap, which has been in use since the middle of the 17th century, 

comes from the name of a game 

(which involved two players, one umpire, a hat, and some hands).

The word progressed from one sport to another

and by the middle of the 18th century 

it began to be used in horse-racing,

in reference to 

                additional weight borne by a horse 

                thought to otherwise have an advantage

From horse-racing the word spread to other sports, 

                such as golf, and from there 

                began to be used to refer to any encumbrance

It was not until the end of the 19th century 

               that handicap was used to refer specifically to a physical disability. 

 

It should be noted that this use of handicap 

             is offensive to many (disability is preferred);

            so this specious etymology manages to err on two fronts.

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