2022-01-17 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – cliché & cliched – click & clique


Revision C

2022-01-17

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – cliché & cliched – click & clique

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Dictionary.com:

ออกเสียง cliché =”klee-SHEY or “kli-SHEY” 

ออกเสียง cliched = “klee-SHEYD or “kli-SHEYD

ออกเสียง click = “KLIK

ออกเสียง clique = “KLEEK or KLIK

 

Dictionary.com:

MORE ABOUT CLICHE

What does cliché mean?

A cliché is an expression, idea, or action 

that has been overused to the point of 

seeming worn out, stale, ineffective, or meaningless

It especially refers to common phrases and elements of art

such as a movie plot.

 

Cliché can also be used as an adjective to describe such things. 

It is very often seen as cliche, without the accent mark over the e.

Example

Politicians’ speeches are often filled with one cliché after another 

so they don’t actually have to say anything meaningful.

 

Where does cliché come from?

The first recorded use of cliché 

meaning “an overused expressioncomes from the 1880s

But cliché was originally used (earlier in the 1800s

in the context of printing to refer to 

a type of metal plate used to reproduce images

This word was borrowed directly from the French word cliché, 

which had this meaning and was based on the French word clicher, meaning “to make such a plate.” 

 

Interestingly, this device was also called a stereotype, 

a term that also went on to have a figurative meaning 

dealing with repeated ideas.

 

Such printing methods eventually went out of fashion

but the association with mass duplication stuck. 

Just as a printing machine creates copies of images over and over, a cliché is something that has been used over and over again.

 

Most commonly, cliché is used to refer to an expression 

or phrase that has been overused

especially to the point that it has lost its impact

think outside the box

actions speak louder than words

for all intents and purposes

these are all expressions that are clichés

 

Writers are often taught to avoid these kinds of clichés in their writing

but fiction writers and other artists 

often also try to avoid another kind of cliché:the stale idea

It’s hard to be original,but some things have been done to death

 

Explosions in action movies or a couple kissing at the end of a love story are two examples of well-worn clichés.

 

Things that are overdone can be described with the adjective cliché, 

as in 

Pro athletes talking about giving 110 percent 

and overcoming adversity is so cliché. 

Cliché can also be used to describe 

commonly done things in everyday life

as in 

I know it’s a cliché, but I can’t do anything before I have my coffee 

or Would it be cliché if I sent her flowers? 

 

A person who follows all the most popular trends 

or who lives a very conventional lifestyle may be calledwalking cliché. 

Truth be told, maybe that’s just the way it is

Everything’s been done. 

There’s nothing new under the sun. 

It is what it is. 

So just live and let live, you know?

 

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language:

Synonyms: 

cliché, bromide, platitude, truism
These nouns denote an expression or idea 

that has lost its originality or force through overuse

a short story weakened by clichés; 

the bromide that we are what we eat; 

a eulogy full of platitudes; 

a once-original thought that is now a truism.

 

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language:

Usage Note: 

The use of cliché as an adjective meaning "clichéd" 

goes back to the 1950s

Nonetheless, this usage is traditionally considered improper

and the majority of the Usage Panel agrees with that assessment

In 2011, 79% of the Panel considered the sentence 

It would sound very cliché to say he died as he lived, helping people

 to be unacceptable

About a fifth of the Panelists, however, found this usage 

either somewhat or completely acceptable. 

 

As is the case with most nouns

the use of cliché in compounds, 

such as cliché-ridden, meaning "full of clichés," 

is perfectly acceptable. 

 

The use of cliché as an adjective 

is alluring because English has borrowed some é-final adjectives 

from French participles

such as passé and recherché

Because the overwhelming use of cliché is as a noun, 

however, the English adjective 

wasoriginally formed directly from that noun by adding -d, 

the same process that gives us words 

such as barefaced, single-spaced, and fated.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

What is the Difference Between cliché and stereotype?

The words cliché and stereotype have a good deal in common

Both come from French, both were originally printers’ terms

and both have come to take on somewhat negative meanings 

in modern use.

Their original meanings are essentially synonymous

referring to printing blocks from which numerous prints could be made

In fact, cliché means stereotype in French

Their modern meanings, however, are quite distinct

Cliché is today overwhelmingly encountered 

in reference to something hackneyed

such as 

an overly familiar or commonplace phrase, theme, or expression

Stereotype is most frequently now 

employed to refer to an often unfair and untrue belief 

that many people have about all people 

or things with a particular characteristic.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Word History

'Cliché': We’ve Heard It All Before

A word you can't avoid for something you might want to avoid

We are taught to avoidclichés in our writing

But what makes something a cliché?

 

By definition,

clichés is a trite phrase or expression 

orthe idea expressedby such wording

 

More broadly,

it refers to anything that is so commonplace 

that it lacks freshness

oroffers nothing new in the way of interest or insight.

 

Since most of us first learn about clichés in a writing class

verbal clichés are the first kind we usually think of

—phrases that sound like adages, 

such as “don’t count your chickens before they hatch,” 

or similes like “mad as a wet hen.” 

Because we have heard such phrases so frequently, 

writing teachers advise that we avoid them in our writing 

because the reader isn’t as likely to engage with writing 

that isn’t saying anything new

Plus, no one needs that many chicken references.

 

It is that idea of staleness and unoriginality 

that makes clichés identifiable and something to avoid 

when you are looking to create something vivid.

 

It is no accident that clichés have a lot in common with stereotypes

—the word cliché actually means "stereotype" in French, 

referring to the method of printing newspapers with interlocking plates 

and then 

using a mold to form a new plate that prints the entire page at once. 

 

Cliché is the past participle of the verb, clicher, 

meaning “to produce or print in stereotype.” 

The word is onomatopoeic, alluding to 

the noise of the die striking the metal to lock the plates in place.

 

The notion of mechanical reproduction being a metaphor 

for a repeated idea comes up in stereotype itself,

which can mean “something conforming to a fixed or general pattern

or “a standard or oversimplified opinion that is shared by many people,” 

as well as in boilerplate, the term for standard or formulaic language 

(such as that used in contracts).

 

Nowadays, 

cliché isn’t restricted to habits of language or narrative technique

The word can describe

something that seems to occur over and over again, 

often causing a feeling of fatigue in the viewer:

Amusingly enough,

some commentators found the word cliché 

to be a bit of a cliché in its own right

a tired way for critics to identify commonplace language

 

The word was first entered in English-language dictionaries in the 1890s, with the OED labeling cliché a foreign word. 

By the 1920s, at least one writer had had his fill of it:

 

Dictionary.com:

How To Write Without Using Cliches

Published November 15, 2019

When it comes to clichéd phrases, it’s time to set the record straight

We all use them (and we just did)! 

And while they are often seen as trite, overused, or hackneyed language, clichés can serve a purpose

They’re essentially a shorthand (easy way

to express particular ideas or images.

 

Howeverusing too many clichés is a sign of a lazy writer

Clichéd language, plots, or characters can leave readers feeling bored, because they have quite literally seen andread it all before

And we don’t want that for your readers—they deserve better.

 

That’s why we have some suggestions 

to replace common clichés, no matter the genre.

 

To be honest

One should always strive for honesty

It’s an admirable trait

(Although a few white lies are socially acceptable

like telling Grandma 

you absolutely loved the pair of socks she got you for your birthday.) 

 

You hope that your readers assume you’re an honest person

But the cliché to be honest 

implies that whatever was said before was somehow dishonest or untrue.

 

People use to be honest 

to signal that they (or their characters) are about to say 

something that might beunpopular or negative

There’s nothing wrong with giving folks a heads up 

that you’re about to give a hot take

However, bringing honesty into it 

implies that being forthright is a problem.

 

Next time you find yourself reaching for this stock phrase, 

try substituting stronger, more specific language

For example,

you could say, “While unpopular, my opinion is … ” 

or one of the following:

Or, maybe it’s time to ask yourself: 

do you need to use the expression at all?

Maybe you could cut it and get straight to the point.

 

It goes without saying

It goes without saying is a subordinate clause

meaning that it something has to be said after it

 

For example, “It goes without saying that this cliché is unnecessary.”

If something truly goes without saying

then it doesn’t need to be said at all!

 

If something does need to be said, 

just come out and say it without the preamble

When people use this cliché

they’re expressing how obvious or self-evident an idea is, 

sometimes as part of a rebuttal in an argument.

 

With that in mind, try more straightforward, stronger language 

to simply state the idea or topic you’re discussing.

Or try something like, “It’s generally accepted that … ” as well as:

 

In his/her/their/your/my element

The notion of being in your element is an old one. 

It comes from the 1590s, 

and element referred to something’s natural environment. 

It was related to the ancient notion that 

all things were naturally connected to one of the four elements: 

earth, air, fire, or water.

 

We’re not sure if the cliché itself is over 400 years old, 

but given how overused it is, it may as well be. 

Today, being in your element describes someone 

who seems so at ease in a scenario that they seem born into it. 

It’s a staple of sports commentary, the Land of Clichés.

 

Describing someone as being in their element is, well, overly naturalistic. 

 

It’s also not terribly descriptive.

Next time you feel tempted to use it, 

try saying someone “seems at ease” in their environment 

or they have a “nuanced” understanding of the situation.

Also, someone in their element is someone who performs:

 

Time is of the essence

If you drill into it, you’re really just saying that 

something is time sensitive with this cliché. 

It’s an overly formal way of expressing a fairly simple idea

—that something has to be done quickly.

Using action-based, direct language, 

such as We have to do this now 

or We rushed to complete the task 

is a more engaging way to get the same idea across.

 

You can also try these synonyms for hurry:

 

To play devil’s advocate

This cliché is a staple of annoying social media arguments. 

Not only is it rarely used in earnest,

it’s so overused as to immediately make you want to roll your eyes.

The concept of a devil’s advocate comes from the Catholic Church. 

It was the person who was tasked with arguing against the canonization of someone for sainthood. 

Today, it’s used by anyone who presents a contrary argument, 

most often as a rhetorical device to distance the speaker from the argument they’re making.

If you’re using the cliché devil’s advocate 

to distance yourself from the argument you’re making, just … don’t make it. Stand behind your argument if it’s truly the point you want to make!

If you want to make it clear that you’re arguing the other side of a point without claiming it’s your own, you can say, 

“To take the other position” or “Couldn’t it be argued that … ?”

 

Try also using:

Honestly, the devil really doesn’t need an advocate.

 

Boys will be boys

There’s been a lot of talk in the media and online about men behaving badly, a notion often described as toxic masculinity

Some on the other side of the issue wave this off with the cliché boys will be boys, implying that boys innately act in antisocial ways.

This cliché implies that boys (and, by extension, men) 

can’t learn to do better.

But all humans have the capacity to learn new behaviors. 

Further, it doesn’t really advance the argument in an articulate, specific way.

Instead of relying on boys will be boys, make a specific statement about the behaviors you’re justifying or describing. A concrete statement like, 

“We should let children make mistakes and learn from them” 

or “Boys are prone to [insert generalization here]” 

could both work better to explain what you’re thinking.

 

You can also use verbs like:

Or, maybe reflect on why boys will be boys is a thing but girls will be girls isn’t. Just saying.

 

For all intents and purposes

Let’s say up front that there isn’t anything inherently wrong with this cliché, although it is somewhat overused.For all intents and purposes is an overly wordy and formal way of saying “in effect” or “in every practical sense.” 

This expression is routinely turned into a malapropism.

For every time you see “for all intents and purposes” in the correct context, you’ve probably seen it used a million times as “for all intensive purposes,” “for all intent and purposes,” and even “for all in tents and porpoises.” 

We made that last one up, but you get the point.

To avoid making an embarrassing error when employing this cliché, 

we recommend just skipping it altogether.

 

There are many more concise options:

If you just have to use it, double-check your spelling. 

No offense to porpoises.

We’ve given you some ideas here about how you can strengthen your writing by avoiding clichés, but it all boils down to one overall piece of advice: don’t hide behind what you’re trying to express. Just come out and say it, using concrete, specific language.

 

Common Errors in English Usage Dictionary:

Cliché & cliched

One often hears young people say 

“That movie was so cliché!” 

The standard expression is clichéd.

 

Common Errors in English Usage Dictionary:

Click & clique 

Students lamenting 

the division of their schools into snobbish factions 

often misspell “clique”as “click.” 

In the original French,“clique” was synonymous with “claque”

—an organized group of supporters at a theatrical event 

who tried to prompt positive audience response 

by clapping enthusiastically,

 

Abused, Confused, & Misused Words by Mary Embree:

Clique = exclusive group of friends or associates:

The members formed a clique.

Not to be confused with:

click – a brief, sharp sound: 

The click of her heels was heard on the stairs.

= to press a computer button: 

click on “open

 

Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms:

Clique =  a narrow circle of friends

  = an exclusive set

See also coteriefaction.

Example: clique of admirers.

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