2021-01-13 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด S – Since & yet

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2021-01-13

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด S – Since & yet

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Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง Since = ‘SINS

ออกเสียง yet = ‘YET

Abused, Confused, & Misused Words by Mary Embree

since

= from then until now; between thenand now; before now

Not to be confused with:

cents = pennies, bronze coins

scents = odors, perfumes

sense = perceive, grasp, comprehend

Collins COBUILD English Usage

1. 'since'

You use since to say that something has been true

from a particular time in the past until now.

Exam results have improved since 2001.

I've been wearing glasses since I was three.

Be Careful!

In sentences like these you use a perfect formwith since.

Don't say 'Exam results improved since 2001'

or 'I am wearing glasses since I was three'.

You can also use since to say how long ago something happened.

When you use since like this, use a simple form.

For example,

instead of saying 'I last saw him five years ago',

you can say 'It's five years since I last saw him'.

It's three months since Kathy left.

It's years since I heard that song.

2. 'for'

If you want to say how long something has been true,

use for, not 'since'.

We've been married for seven years.

I've known Adeel for ages.

See for

3. 'during' and 'over'

To say how long something has been happening,

use during or over.

A lot of rain has fallen during the past two days.

Things have become worse over the past few months.

See during, over

4. 'from ... to'

To say when something began and finished,

use from and to.

Mr Ito was headmaster from 1998 to 2007.

Instead of 'to',

you can use till or until.

The noise continued from nine in the morning till 5 p.m.

Be Careful!

Don't use 'since' and 'to'.

Don't say, for example, 'He was headmaster since 1998 to 2007'.

5. used to mean 'because'

Since can also be used to mean 'because'.

Aircraft noise is a problem here since we're close to Heathrow Airport.

See because

Collins COBUILD English Usage

yet

1. used in negative sentences

You use yet in negative sentences to

say that something has not happened up to the present time,

although it probably will happen.

In conversation and in less formal writing,

you usually put yet at the end of a clause.

It isn't dark yet.

I haven't decided yet.

In formal writing, you can put yet immediately after not.

Computer technology has not yet reached its peak.

They have not yet set a date for the election.

2. 'have yet to'

Instead of saying that something 'has not yet happened',

you can say that it has yet to happen.

People often use this structure to show that

they do not expect something to happen.

I have yet to meet a man I can trust.

Whether it will be a success has yet to be seen.

3. used in questions

You often use yet in questions

when you are asking if something has happened.

You put yet at the end of the clause.

Have you done that yet?

Have you had your lunch yet?

Many American speakers and some Britishspeakers

use the past simple in questions like these.

They say, for example, 'Did you have your lunch yet?'

4. 'already'

Don't confuse yet with already.

You use already at the end of a question

to express surprise that something has happened sooner than expected.

Is he there already?

You mean you've been there already?

See already

5. 'still'

Don't use 'yet' to say that something is continuing to happen.

Don't say, for example, 'I am yet waiting for my luggage'.

The word you use is still.

He still doesn't understand.

Brian's toe is still badly swollen.

See still

6. 'just yet'

If you don't intend to do something just yet,

you don't intend to do it immediately.

It is too risky to announce an increase in our charges just yet.

I'm not ready to retire just yet.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Since & yet

Usage Notes

'Since' vs. 'As' vs. 'Because'

Which conjunction should you use to show cause?

For reasons that confound the humble lexicographer,

some people have quite a beef with conjunctions.

Specifically, people seem to be confused

about which kinds of conjunctions you can use where.

What are we to make, some usage mavens would say, of the sentence

"We had dessert since he had bought ice cream"?

A solid question that is mostly irrelevant in the real world.

That's right: there's more than one kind of conjunction.

There's one type of conjunction in particular

that's been a bugaboo for grammarians for centuries,

and that is the causal conjunction.

As their name suggests, causal conjunctions

are used to connect two related clauses orsentences

and to show a cause-and-effect relationshipbetween the two:

We have no dessert in the house

because you ate all the ice cream last night.

Because is the conjunction that gets the most use,

but there are a few others in use

--much to the consternation of usage commentators

of the 20th and 21st centuries.

The two causal conjunctions that get the most ire

from grammarians are since and as.

Since is used as a causal conjunction (and has been since the 16th century) in the same way that because is used:

Since you ate the ice cream last night, we don't have any dessert tonight.

Usage mavens of the 20th century rejected this use.

Since as a conjunction can refer both to causation

and to the passage of time

("It's been two weeks since we've had any ice cream in this house"),

and the mavens believed strongly that

since there's potential confusion over which meaning of since is meant,

one should avoid since as a causal conjunction.

What are we to make, they would say, of the sentence

"We had dessert since he had bought ice cream"?

Is the writer saying that after he bought ice cream,

they had been steadily having dessert?

Or is the writer saying that because he bought ice cream, they had dessert?

These mavens asked a solid question

that is, nonetheless, mostly irrelevant in the real world.

Such instances of ambiguity are few and far between in actual use:

sentences tend to appear surrounded by other sentences,

and this context often makes it clear whether

the writer is using the causal since orthe time-related since.

We've used a few sinces here,

and it's probable you didn't stumble over them at all.

There is a subtle difference between since and because, however:

since expresses a milder degree of causality than because does.

Since doesn't get all the ire.

The conjunctive as gets dumped on even more.

The conjunction as has a number of meanings and uses,

including both

one that marks time (“We had dessert as we watched TV”)

and causation (“We had dessert, aswe had ice cream in the house”),

and both of these uses are over 1,000 years old.

The time-related meaning of as is more common than

the causal meaning of as¸

and for this reason, usage commentators still advise against it:

In the causal sense , as should generally be avoided

because (not as!) it may be understood as having

its more usual meaning “while,

especially when it is placed anywhere

but at the beginning of the sentence .

—Bryan Garner, Garner’s Modern English Usage, 4th ed., 2016

Sound advice. And yet our research shows that, in real life,

conjunctive uses of as are rarely confusing.

Just like since, the conjunctive as rarely appears in a sentence

that is contextless,

and the context can often help disambiguate the meaningof as.

Here are some real-world examples of the conjunctive as.

See which ones trip you up:

THESEUS. Oh! then as I'm a respectable man, and rather particular about the company I keep, I think I'll go

—W. S. Gilbert, Thespis, 1871

... I shall prepare my most plaintive airs against his return, in compassion to his feelings, as I know his horse will lose.

—Jane Austen, Mansfield Park, 1814

Indeed, some jurors confirmed later that day that they wished they had been given the manslaughter option as they didn’t believe the au pair intended to harm the baby.

—Kimberly Mills, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 14 Nov. 1997

This last example is cited by Garner as an example of the ambiguous as,

 but that seems to be reading ambiguity into a sentence

where there is none.

It’s clear from the context that the as heredoesn’t meanwhile,

but “because.

As is much more formal thaneither since or because,

but this is no reason to reject it as a causal conjunction.

What advice would we give?

Since as a causal conjunction is almost unremarkable

except to a few stick-in-the-muds,

and is sometimes preferable when you want

the cause to be less directly linked to the effect.

As will garner more criticism

if you use it as a causal conjunction,

but if you need the formality of as,

make sure that the sentence can’t be misconstruedat all

by substituting in both because and while in your sentence.

When in doubt, you can always default to because,

since no one finds fault with it.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

yet

NEVERTHELESS, HOWEVER

 —used to introduce a statement that adds something

to a previous statement and usually contrasts with it in some way

It was pouring rain out, yet his clothes didn’t seem very wet.

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expression

Since & yet

Both of these words are adverbs

expressing time but doing so in differentways and meaning.

Since can mean

(1) “at some past time,” “before now” (She has long since forgotten me);

(2) “between then and now” (He has sinceleft town);

(3) “from some time in the past up until now

(She came back last week and has been making trouble ever since):

The word until is usually superfluousin a since phrase:

“He had not voted since 1972 until this fall” can better be expressed

“He had not voted from 1972 until this fall.”

Yet mean

(1) “at this time” (Don’t go yet);

(2) “thus far” (The signal had not yet come);

(3) “still” (Something is yet to be done);

(4) “in addition” (yet another time);

(5) “nevertheless” (poorer yet wiser).

Because both since and yet covertime up to the present,

an accompanying verb should be in the perfect, not past, tense:

“There has been no agreement on the dispute that has prevented progress since the meeting began.”

Have you written to her yet?” “Did you eat yet?” is nonstandard.

“Have you eaten yet?” is standard.

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