2021-01-10 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด S – Shrunk & shrank

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2021-01-10 

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด S – Shrunk & shrank

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Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง Shrunk = ‘SHRUHNGK

ออกเสียง shrank = ‘SHRANGK

ออกเสียง shrink = ‘SHRINGK

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Choose the Right Synonym for shrink

Verb

CONTRACT, SHRINK, CONDENSE, COMPRESS, CONSTRICT, DEFLATE

mean to decrease in bulk or volume.

CONTRACT applies to a drawing together of surfaces

or particles or a reduction of areaor length.

caused her muscles to contract

SHRINK implies a contracting or a loss of material and stresses a falling short of original dimensions.

the sweater will shrink when washed

CONDENSE implies a reducing of something homogeneous to greater compactness without significant loss of content.

condense the essay into a paragraph

COMPRESS implies a pressing into a small compass and definite shape usually against resistance.

compressed cotton into bales

CONSTRICT implies a tightening that reduces diameter.

the throat is constricted by a tight collar

DEFLATE implies a contracting by reducing the internal pressure of contained airor gas. deflate the balloon

RECOIL, SHRINK, FLINCH, WINCE, BLENCH, QUAIL

mean to draw back in fear or distaste.

RECOIL impliesa start or movement away through shock, fear, or disgust.

recoiled at the suggestion of stealing

SHRINK suggests an instinctive recoil through sensitiveness, scrupulousness, or cowardice. shrank from the unpleasant truth

FLINCH implies a failure to endure pain or face something dangerous or frightening with resolution.

faced her accusers without flinching

WINCE suggests a slight involuntary physical reaction

(such as a start or recoiling). winced in pain

BLENCH implies fainthearted flinching.

stood their ground without blenching

QUAIL suggests shrinking and cowering in fear.

quailed before the apparition

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Usage Notes

What's the Past Tense of 'Shrink'?

Shrink, shrank, shrunk...shrinked?

What to Know

Generally,

shrank is the simple past tense formof "shrink"

like in "I shrank the shirt in the wash."

Shrunk is the past participlebeing paired with "have"

as in "I have shrunk the jeans."

There are rarer examples of shrinkedand shrunken in literature

but not enough to support those usages asstandard.

If you decided to turn over a new leaf

and finally start doing the laundry around the house,

only to find that you used too much hot water,

how would you explain to your significant other thattheir jeans no longer fit?

We don’t mean to question how you would justify yourself (that’s your problem);

the question is whether you would sayI shrank your jeans,”

or “I shrunk your jeans”?

Or would you instead adopt a bold and unconventional form

(“I shrinked your jeans”) in the hopes that the ensuing conversation

on inflections would cause your transgression to be overlooked?

Use 'shrank' for the simple past ("I shrankyour jeans")

and "shrunk" for the past participle ("I have shrunk your jeans").

Herman Melville used the word 'shrinked',

but you should probably not follow his example.

The short answer is shrank.

The slightly longer answer is

"English is a complicated and messy language,

with many variant forms overlapping in use and register over the years,

and if you want to avoid shrinking clothes

you should use cold water (or do a hand wash),

and hang them up to dry, instead of using a dryer."

Now let’s look at the very long answer

(the one for people who are avoiding doing the laundry, and need a diversion).

Origins of Shrink, Shrank, and Shrunk

Shrink is an old word, having been in continual since before the 12th century.

The earliest meaning was “to contractor curl up the body or part of it

usually because of physical stress, fear, or revulsion.”

In the following centuries,

shrink has picked up a large number of additional meanings,

almost all of which are in some way

concerned with contracting, diminishing, or drawing back from a thing.

Putting aside the ways that this verb was inflected back in Old English

(because you really do need to get around to doing your laundry sooner or later),

it was, for hundreds of years,

very common to see shrunk used as the simple past tense.

That doesn’t mean that people didn’t use shrank,

just that shrunk was more common.

Around the 18th and 19th centuries

shrank began to see increased use in this case (at least in written English).

At this point, shrunk began to be used more frequently as a past participle

(“the form of the verb that is used with “have” in perfect tenses

and with “be” in passive constructions”).

What About Shrinked?

In the present day,

most style guides will recommend using shrank for the simple past

(“I shrank your jeans”)

and shrunk for the past participle (“I have shrunk your jeans”)

or when using the passive voice (“jeans have been shrunk”).

What of shrinked and shrunken?

Shrinked may be found in the works of many writers

over the past five hundred years.

If Abraham I say, had thoughte on thys maner,

or had shrinked so in his faith,

I thinke hee would neuer haue intended to offer vp his onely sonne….

Urbanus Rhegius (trans. By John F.), A Necessary Instruction of Christian Faith, 1579

“He got so frightened about his plaguy soul, that he shrinked and sheered away from whales, for fear of after-claps, in case he got stove and went to Davy Jones."
Herman Melville, Moby-Dick, 1851

No stern lecture, no dogmatic sermon,

but a clear Mormon message about sexual morality.

Not that Perry shrinked from tough talk.

Peggy Fletcher Stack, The Salt Lake Tribune (Salt Lake City, UT), 31 May, 2015

This is, however, one of those cases

where evidence of a word being used a certain way

does not necessarily mean that you should use it thusly.

You can also put your red socks in the wash with your white shirts,

but … c’mon, didn’t anyone ever explain laundry to you?

In the citations listed above

the first use is archaic,

the second is a novelist replicating speech,

and the third would be generally viewed as an error.

Similarly, it is not difficult to find examples of writers using shrunken,

especially as a past participle

(H. G. Wells, in his A Short History of the World, wrote

“The great Hellenic world had shrunken to a few possessions round the nucleus of the trading city of Constantinople”). However, most people who care about such matters would say that shrunken should properly only be used as an adjective.

And Mr. Backhouse pointed with withering scorn to a small, shrunken old man, who sat dangling his legs on the shaft of the cart, and whose countenance wore a singular expression of mingled meekness and composure, as his partner flourished an indignant finger towards him.

Mrs. Humphry Ward (Mary Augusta Ward), Robert Elsmere, 1888

In the event that the inflection

of shrink/shrank/shrunk is still troublesome to you,

some people appear to have an easier time distinguishing

between the similar forms of drink/drank/drunk,

and you may find it useful to use this as a guide.

Present tense: "I drink your milkshake."

Simple past: "I drank your milkshake."

Past participle: "I have drunk your milkshake."

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Words We're Watching

That Shrinking Feeling

Shrinkflation

Ever bought a candy bar that seemed somehow smaller

than you remembered but that still cost the same?

 It's no illusion; it's shrinkflation.

When raw materials cost producers more,

 they sometimes react not by raising prices

but by charging the same price for a package that contains a bit less.

It's a kind of downsizing that bucks the decades-old trend of supersizing,

and you can see its effects in almost every aisle of the grocery store.

The British economist Pippa Malmgren

is often credited with coining shrinkflation,

and may indeed be responsible for the word now in use

(see her comment in the Twitter conversation here).

That said, shrinkflation had a previous(though maybe short-lived) meaning.

In his 2009 book Econoclasts:

The Rebels Who Sparked the Supply-Side Revolution and Restored American Prosperity, Brian Domitrovic

uses shrinkflation to contrastwith stagflation

(which is persistent inflation combined with stagnant consumer demand

and relatively high unemployment).

He writes, "Following World War II,

the United States traded depression for an acute period of stagflation.

Actually, it was 'shrinkflation,'

in that the economy was contracting as prices surged."

We haven't come across recent evidence of this use

– it's Malmgren's use that has taken off in the past couple years.

Shrinkflation is only the latestin a series of words

to put the -flation of inflation (of the economic variety) to work.

Others include slumpflation and stagflation,

and it's likely that that there will be still more in the future

as economists and others aim to diagnose just what's going wrong out there.

Common Errors In English Usage Dictionary

Shrunk – shrank

The simple past tense form of “shrink” is “shrank

and the past participle is “shrunk”;

it should be “Honey, I Shrank the Kids,” not ”Honey, I Shrunk the Kids.”

(Thanks a lot, Disney.) “Honey, I've shrunk the kids” would be standard,

and also grammatically acceptable is “Honey, I've shrunken the kids”

(though deplorable from a child-rearing point of view)

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