2020-09-16 คำชวนสับสน ชุด E – Endemic - epidemic

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2020-09-16

180928 คำชวนสับสน ชุด E – Endemic - epidemic

การใช้ภาษาอังกฤษ ที่ถือว่า ถูกต้อง ในที่นี้ เป็นไป ตามมาตรฐาน ของภาษา

การใช้ภาษาอังกฤษ ไม่กำหนดมาตฐาน ถือตามส่วนใหญ่ที่ใช้แต่ละท้องถิ่น

ความหมาย อาจยืดหยุ่น ขึ้นอยู่กับ ตำแหน่ง/หน้าที่ ในประโยค

Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง “endemic” = “en-DEM-ik’”

ออกเสียง “epidemic” = “ep-i-DEM-ik”

American Heritage Dictionary:

อธิบายการใช้ “endemic” และ “epidemic”

ว่า “โรคที่เกิดเป็นประจำในพื้นที่เฉพาะแห่งหนึ่ง”

เช่น “malaria” ที่เกิดในประเทศเขตร้อนหลายแห่ง

เรียกว่า เป็น “endemic”

เป็นคำที่ประกอบขึ้นจาก

คำนำหน้า “en-” หมายถึง “in หรือ within

และคำ “demos” จากภาษา กรีก หมายถึง “people

รวมหมายถึง “within the people (of a region)”

ส่วน “epidemic” คือ โรค “ที่มีผลกระทบ

ต่อคนจำนวนมากกว่าปกติ ในที่เฉพาะแห่ง”

หรือ “ที่แพร่ระบาดไปทั่วพื้นที่ ที่ซึ่งปกติ ไม่ค่อยเกิด”

เป็นคำประกอบขึ้นจาก

คำนำหน้า “epi-” หมายถึง “upon

และ “demos” หมายถึง “people

รวมหมายถึง “upon the people.”

การที่โรคหนึ่ง จะเกิดเป็น “epidemic” ได้

จะต้องเป็น ชนิดที่ “ติดต่อได้ง่าย” จึงกระจายในหมู่ประชากร

เช่น “influenza” ที่เรียกทั่วไปว่า “flu”

ที่เป็น ต้นเหตุของ “epidemic” หลายต่อหลายครั้ง

“Epidemics of waterborne diseases” เช่น

Cholera มักเกิดบ่อยครั้ง หลังจาก “natural disaster” เช่น

“Earthquakes” หรือ “severe storms” ที่ได้ทำลายระบบ

“Sanitation system” ทำให้ไม่มีน้ำสะอาดบริโภค

The American Heritage® Student Science Dictionary

Usage A disease that occurs regularly in a particular area, as malaria does in many tropical countries, is said to be endemic.

The word endemic, built from the prefix en-, "in or within," and the Greek word demos, "people," means "within the people (of a region)."

A disease that affects many more people than usualin a particular area or that spreads into regions in which it does not usually occur is said to be epidemic.

This word, built from the prefix epi-, meaning "upon," and demos, means "upon the people."

In order for a disease to become epidemic it must be highly contagious,

that is, easily spread through a population.

Influenza, better known as the flu, has been the cause of many epidemics throughout history. Epidemics of waterborne diseases such as cholera often occur after natural disasters such as earthquakes and severe storms that disrupt or destroy sanitation systems and supplies of fresh water.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Choose the Right Synonym for endemic

Adjective

NATIVE, INDIGENOUS, ENDEMIC, ABORIGINAL

mean belonging to a locality.

NATIVE implies birth or origin in a place or region and may suggest compatibility with it. native tribal customs

INDIGENOUS applies to that which is not only native but which, as far as can be determined, has never been introduced or brought from elsewhere. indigenous plants

ENDEMIC implies being peculiar to a region. a disease endemic in Africa

ABORIGINAL implies having no known others preceding in occupancy of a particular region. the aboriginal peoples of Australia

Did You Know?

Adjective

If you translate it literally, endemic means "in the population."

It derives from the Greek endēmos, which joins en, meaning "in," and dēmos, meaning "population." "Endemic" is often used to characterize diseases that are generally found in a particular area; malaria, for example, is said to be endemic to tropical and subtropical regions.

This use differs from that of the related word epidemic in that it indicates a more or less constant presence in a particular population or area rather than a sudden, severe outbreak within that region or group.

The word is also used by biologists to characterize the plant and animal species that are only found in a given area.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Usage Notes

'Epidemic' vs. 'Endemic'

It can be difficult to distinguish between two words when they are spelled in similar fashion, contain a common root, and both have definitions which relate to the same topic.

English has a regrettable number of pairs which might be described in this fashion, but in this case we are referring to endemic and epidemic.

'Endemic' is mostly found as an adjective meaning “characteristic of or prevalent in a particular field, area, or environment.”

For those who are in a hurry, and just need to know the quick answer, the Merriam-Webster Dictionary of English Usage has the following advice:

“Medically speaking, endemic describes a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser extent in a particular place;

epidemic describes a severe outbreak of a disease affecting many people within a community or region at one time.”

Both epidemic and endemic came into English around the beginning of the 17th century, and the words share the root Greek dēmos, meaning “population."

The prefix epi- comes from the Greek word meaning “on, at, besides, after,” and en- from en, meaning “in.” Epidemic was preceded slightly by the now-obsolete epidemical (which carries the same meaning).

Both endemic and epidemic have taken on senses outside of science or medicine,

although even in these figurative meanings the words tend to remain aligned with their initial meanings.

While endemic may be a noun, it mostly functions figuratively as an adjective, meaning “characteristic of or prevalent in a particular field, area, or environment.”

Epidemic carries its non-technical meanings as both adjective (“contagious,” “excessively prevalent”) and noun (“an outbreak or product of sudden rapid spread, growth, or development”).

For those who are tired of correcting other’s misuse of endemic and epidemic, and who would like a more obscure topic to harp on, we may offeryou epizootic (“an outbreak of disease affecting many animals of one kind at the same time”).

Some usage guides urge writers to reserve the useof epidemic for humans, employing epizootic for such occasions as when one is describing an outbreak of chytridiomycosis.

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