|โดย ผู้จัดการออนไลน์||21 กันยายน 2549 02:28 น.|
"With the World Health Report 2001 devoted to mental health, international health has never been more attentive to mental health than now. With this enhanced recognition have also come increased expectations and responsibilities, including the development of policy to mitigate the effects of natural disasters, armed conflict, war, and forced displcements. (p. 611)"
Let understand Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) first before going to the point:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful experiences that the person experiences as highly traumatic.  The experience must involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury, or a threat to physical and/or psychological integrity. It is occasionally called post-traumatic stress reaction to emphasize that it is a routine result of traumatic experience rather than a manifestation of a pre-existing psychological weakness on the part of the patient.
It is possible for individuals to experience traumatic stress without manifesting Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, as indicated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
Symptoms of PTSD can include the following: nightmares, flashbacks, emotional detachment or numbing of feelings (emotional self-mortification or dissociation), insomnia, avoidance of reminders and extreme distress when exposed to the reminders ("triggers"), irritability, hypervigilance, memory loss, and excessive startle response, clinical depression and anxiety, loss of appetite.
Regarding the interventions, basic counseling for PTSD includes education about the condition and provision of safety and support (Foa 1997). Cognitive therapy shows good results (Resick 2002), and group therapy may be helpful in reducing isolation and Stigma (Foy 2002).
Cognitive Therapy and/or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy most closely ally with the Scientist-Practitioner Model of Clinical Psychology, in which clinical practice and research is informed by a scientific perspective; clear operationalization of the "problem" or "issue;" an emphasis on measurement (and measurable changes in cognition and behavior); and measureable goal-attainment.
Some of the many benefits of group therapy:
- Exploring issues in a social context more accurately reflects real life.
- Group therapy provides an opportunity to observe and reflect on your own and others' social skills.
- Group therapy provides an opportunity to benefit both through active participation and through observation.
- Group therapy offers an opportunity to give and get immediate feedback about concerns, issues and problems affecting one's life.
- Group therapy members benefit by working through personal issues in a supportive, confidential environment and by helping others to work through theirs.
Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy is an effective and evidence-based treatment developed by Daniel Hughes, Ph.D., (Hughes, 2005, Hughes, 2004, Hughes, 2003; Hughes, 1997)(13-15). Its basic principles are described by Hughes (2003) and summarized as follows:
- A focus on both the caregivers' and therapists' own attachment histories. Previous research (Dozier, 2001,(16) Tyrell 1999 (17)) has shown the importance of the caregivers' and therapists' state of mind for the success of interventions.
- Therapist and caregiver are attuned to the child’s subjective experience and reflect this back to the child. In the process of maintaining an intersubjective attuned connection with the child, the therapist and caregiver help the child regulate affect and construct a coherent autobiographical narrative.
- Sharing of subjective experiences.
- Use of PACE (Playfulness, Acceptance, Curiosity and Empathy) and PLACE (Playful, Loving, Accepting, Curious, and Empathic) strategies are essential to healing.
- Directly address the inevitable misattunements and conflicts that arise in interpersonal relationships.
- Caregivers use attachment-facilitating interventions.
- Use of a variety of interventions, including cognitive-behavioral strategies.
Weiss et al. (2003) said that "While the concept of PTSD is useful, it has dominated that study of many disaster and emergency responses. The better epidemiological literature highlights the need for a range of diagnotic assessments. Screening should ensure that there is a recognition of risk, adaptive responses and the common patterns of psychosocial morbidity and the contribution of background factors, both experiences and strengths and vulnerabilities. Posttraumatic growth should also be considered. (p. 612)"
"The social component of interventions should make appropriate use of local resources and promote active community participation, recognizing both local capacities and their limitations. Because most activities and resources are currently focused on clinical services, rather than community action, more attention to the latter to correct the imbalance may be required. Community-based supports should make use of group interactions to build or restore social networks, to help communities rebuild institutions and infrastructures, and to enable people to return to previous activities or develop acceptable alternatives. (p. 614)"
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