อนุทิน #118574

Buddha Vacana 

The wanderer Nandiya asked the Lord: “What conditions when developed and practiced, lead to Nirvana, have Nirvana as their goal, culminate in Nirvana?”

“There are, Nandiya, eight things which, when developed and practiced, lead to Nirvana, have Nirvana as their goal, culminate in Nirvana.  What eight?  Perfect View, Perfect Thought, Perfect Speech, Perfect Action, Perfect Livelihood, Perfect Effort, Perfect Mindfulness and Perfect Concentration.

-- S.V,11
<Note. Nirvana: Sanskrit; Nibbāna: Pāli; free from craving. (adj.)>

เขียน:

ความเห็น (2)

สัมมา นั้น ส่วนใหญ่ที่ผมอ่านมา มักแปลกันว่า right   แต่สำนวน perfect นี้ ผมเพิ่งได้ยิน  ไม่ทราบว่าท่านใดแปลครับ 

According to Pali-English Dictionary (PED) used in Digital Pali Reader (DPR develioped by Yuttadhammo bhikkhu) :

   sammā: properly; rightly; thoroughly. (ind.)

In mahayaana text this is often translated as 'perfect' in the sense of 'complete' or 'proper' or 'thorough'. In Thai we are used to "middle (way)" as proper or right. We do not often investigate (the whole) thoroughly but we memorize all words.

I think Thais understand and use 'perfect' as a superlative describing 'absolutely sublime' quality.

I think this also makes understanding of English 'perfect' tenses more difficult, Because 'perfect tenses' are just constructs for describing 'completed' (done) actions -- not the quality of actions.

But in a philosophical sense we only know something is 'complete' after we see the  "end" of it. How do we know if something has ended? For something we don't know anything about -- it is difficult to see and to recognize the beginning and the complete end ;-)

Note. The original book Buddha Vacana was compiled by Venerable S. Dhammika and was published by the Buddha Dhamma Mandala Society.

The digitisation work was done by group leaders of the Camp Nirvana Singapore (CNS1996) organised by Nanyang Technological University Buddhist Society (NTUBS) ... http://buddhavacana.net/more-info/