2022-08-10 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด H - Hang & hung


Revision H

2022-08-10

151218-1 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด H - Hang & hung 

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Dictionary.com:

ออกเสียง hang = “HANG

ออกเสียง hung = “HUHNG

 

Dictionary.com: 

IDIOMS ABOUT HANG

hang a left / right

Slang. to make a left (or right) turn, 

           as while driving an automobile:

           Hang a right at the next corner.

hang fiveto ride a surfboard 

          with the weight of the body forward

          and the toes of the forward foot curled

          over the front edge of the surfboard.

 

Dictionary.com:

ORIGIN OF HANG

First recorded before 900; 

fusion of 3 verbs

 

(1) Middle English hon, Old English hōn “to hang” (transitive), 

      cognate with Gothic hāhan; 

 

(2) Middle English hang(i)en, Old English hangian “to hang” (intransitive), 

      cognate with German hangen (intransitive);

 

(3) Middle English henge (transitive), from Old Norse hengja (transitive), 

      cognate with German hängen “to hang” (transitive)

 

Dictionary.com:

SYNONYM STUDY FOR HANG

Hang, lynch have in common 

the meaning of 

         “to put to death,” 

         but lynching is not always by hanging. 

 

Hangin the sense of execute

          is in accordance with a legal sentence,

          the method of execution being 

          to suspend by the neckuntil dead. 

 

To lynchhowever, implies the summaryputting to death

          by any method, of someone charged with a flagrant offense 

          (though guilt may not have been proved).

 

Lynching is done by private persons

           usually a mob, without legal authority.

 

Dictionary.com: 

USAGE NOTE FOR HANG

Hang has two forms for the past tense 

            and past participlehanged and hung.

 

The historically older form hanged 

           is now used exclusively 

           in the sense of causing or putting to death

           His friends were hanged by a lynch mob. 

           He was sentenced to be hanged by the neck until dead. 

In the sense of legal execution

           hung is also quite common 

           and is standard in all types of speech 

           and writing except in legal documents. 

When legal execution is not meant, 

           hung has become the more frequent form: 

           The prisoner hung himself in his cell.

 

USAGE FOR HUNG

For most senses of hang the past tense and past participle is hung : 

           I hung the curtains; 

           he had hung the new painting on the wall .

However, when the meaning is 

           'to suspend or be suspended by the neck until dead'

           the past tense and past participle is hanged : 

           the traitors were hanged; 

           they had hanged him at dawn .

           This form is also used in the idiom 

            I'll be hanged

 

Abused, Confused, & Misused Words by Mary Embree: 

hung

         = fastened from above with no support from below; 

            suspended: 

         She hung up her clothes.

Not to be confused with:

hanged = executed by suspending by the neck: 

He was hanged at dawn.

 

Collins English Dictionary: 

Hung

Usage: 

For most senses of hang 

            the past tense and past participle is hung

            I hung the curtains; he had hung the new painting on the wall

However, 

           when the meaning is 

           'to suspend or be suspended by the neck until dead', 

           the past tense and past participle is hanged

           the traitors were hanged; 

           they had hanged him at dawn

           This form is also used in the idiom 

           I'll be hanged

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Hanged vs. Hung: 

Usage Guide

Verb

For both transitive and intransitive senses 

the past and past participle hung

           as well as hanged, is standard.

 

          Hanged is most appropriate for official executions  

          he was to be hanged

           cut down whilst still alive … and his bowels torn out  

           — Louis Allen 

but hung is also used.  

           gave orders that she should be hung  — Peter Quennell 

 

Hung is more appropriate for less formal hangings.  

         by morning I'll be hung in effigy  — Ronald Reagan

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Words of the Week - May 27, 2022

Hang

Allegations that 

the former president was not indisposed 

to the idea of seeing the former vice president hanged 

 

sent many people to the dictionary 

in search of the word hang.

 

Trump expressed support for hanging Pence 

during Capitol riot, Jan. 6 panel told
— (headline) Politico, 25 May 2022

 

Hang has many possible meanings; 

the one most relevant here is 

“to die by being suspended by the neck.” 

 

Some usage guides 

feel quite strongly that 

there is a useful distinction to be made 

in deciding between hanged and hung 

 

when referring to something 

that had at some point in the past been suspended

 

The advice given is that hung is preferred

in almost every circumstance 

(such as ‘the picture was hung in the living room’), 

 

the exception being cases 

where a person is put to death 

(‘the prisoner was hanged yesterday at noon’).

 

It is worth noting that this distinction 

extends to representations of people

had a straw figure made to resemble some politician 

(but not the actual person

been subjected to this treatment 

 

it would be considered correct 

to say that they were hung in effigy

but if the actual person had been so punished 

one would say that they had been hanged. 

 

Here is what our own usage guide has to say on this matter:

 

“The distinction between hanged and hung 

is not an especially useful one 

(although a few commentators claim otherwise). 

It is, however, a simple one and certainly easy to remember. 

Therein lies its popularity. 

If you make a point of observing the distinction in your writing, 

you will not thereby become a better writer, 

but you will spare yourself the annoyance of 

         being corrected for having done something that is not wrong.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Commonly Confused

Is it 'Hung' or 'Hanged'?

Yes, there are two words for the past tense of 'hang'. 

Sorry about that.

 

What to Know

The past tense of hang in almost all situations is hung. 

You hung a picture on the wall, or 

you hung out at the mall. 

 

Only use hanged when referring to 

           someone being sentenced to death via hanging.

 

Some people bristle when 

they hear hanged or hung used incorrectly. 

Their blood boils. Their vision blacks out

Mixing up hung and hanged will make these people thoroughly cheesed off and mad as heck

 

Irate copy editors are no fun, but you can escape their ire. 

Read on.

The standard rule for the past tense of hang is this: 

in almost all situations, you should use the word hung.

 

hung a picture of Noah Webster on the wall.
After school, she hung out in the library.

 

Use hanged 

             when referring to a person being suspended 

            by a rope around the neck until dead.

 

The Salem "witches" were not burned; they were hanged.


Justice Wargrave ordered Edward Seton 

              to be hanged by the neck until dead.

 

It's not that simple, however: 

most usage guides reserve hanged for people subjected to death

 

which means if an inanimate object

            is suspended from a gallows, 

            the correct term is hung.

 

Despised by the voters, he was hung in effigy.

 

A stripped-down version of why we have 

            these two different words 

            is that the word hang came from two different verbs 

            in Old English (and possibly also one from Old Norse). 

           One of these Old English verbs was 

           what we might think of as a regular verb, 

           and this gave rise to hanged;

           the other was irregular, and ended up becoming hung.

 

Hanged and hung were used interchangeably for hundreds of years, 

although over time 

           the one from the irregular verb (hung)

           eventually became the more common one. 

 

Hanged retained its position 

when used to refer to death by hanging

possibly due to being favored by judges 

who were passing a sentence. 

 

However, both forms are commonly found,

and both are commonly found used in either sense.

 

The Hanged vs. Hung Debate

Is the distinction important? 

It's still commonly found in usage guides, 

           which typically say that 

           the past and the past participle of 

          hang should be hanged 

          only when referring to a person 

           being subjected to death. 

Hung is preferred, at least by people 

          who make a distinction, 

          in almost every circumstance. 

 

However, not everyone makes this distinction. 

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary of English Usage 

has a take on this 

that differs slightly from the one commonly found in usage guides:

 

The distinction between hanged and hung 

is not an especially useful one 

(although a few commentators claim otherwise). 

It is, however, a simple one and certainly easy to remember. 

Therein lies its popularity. 

            If you make a point of observing 

            the distinction in your writing

            you will not thereby become a better writer, 

            but you will spare yourself the annoyance 

            of being corrected for having done 

            something that is not wrong.

In other words, 

              observing this distinction will help you 

             to avoid criticism from people 

             with strong feelings on the subject. 

             But don't get too hung up about it.

 

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language:

hang′a·ble adj.

Usage Note: 

Hanged, as a past tense and a past participle of hang, 

is used in the sense of "to put to death by hanging," 

as in Frontier courts hanged many a prisoner after a summary trial. 

 

In our 2008 survey, some 71 percent of the Usage Panel 

objected to hung used in this sense. 

The Panel's opposition to this usage 

has remained strong since balloting began in the 1960s. 

 

In all other senses

             hung is the preferred form as past tense and past participle

             as in I hung my child's picture above my desk.

 

Collins COBUID English Dictionary: 

hang

1. 'hang' something somewhere

If you hang something somewhere, 

you place itso that its highest part is supported and the rest is not.

When hang has this meaning,

             its past tense and past participle is hung.

She hung the kettle on the iron post.

He had hung the coat where he could see it.

 

2. 'hang' a person

To hang a person means to kill them by 

             tying a rope around their neck 

            and taking away the support from under their feet 

            so that they hang in the air. 

           When hang has this meaning, 

           its past tense and past participle is hanged.

He went off and hanged himself.

Rebecca Smith was hanged in 1849.

 

3. other meanings

Hang has several other meanings and 

is used in some phrasal verbs

For allthese other meanings, 

          the past tense and past participle is hung.

Her long hair hung over her face.

The smell of paint hung in the air.

'Good night.' He hung up the phone.

 

Common Error in English Usage Dictionary:

Originally these words were pretty much interchangeable

but “hanged” eventually came to be used 

pretty exclusively to meanexecuted by hanging.” 

 

Does nervousness about the existence of 

an indelicate adjectival form of the word 

prompt people to avoid the correct word in such sentences 

as 

“Lady Wrothley saw to it that her ancestors’ portraits were properly hung"? 

Nevertheless, “hung” is correct except when 

      capital punishment is being imposed.

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