2022-01-26 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – C - conservative & moderate & radical


Revision C

2022-01-26

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – C - conservative & moderate & radical

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Dictionary.com:

ออกเสียง conservative = “kuhn-SUR-vuh-tiv”

ออกเสียง moderate – adj. “MOD-er-it” - verb = “MOD-uh-reyt”

ออกเสียง radical = “RAD-i-kuhl” 

 

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expressions:

conservative & moderate & radical

As they relate to ideas and opinions 

involving politics, morals, property, and manners

these words have widely differing applications. 

What one person considers moderate, 

another might term conservative or radical. 

In meaning, however, 

conservative refers to a person or state of mind 

that is disposed to favor gradual rather than sudden change

that wishes to preserve existing conditions and situations, 

that is, at most, “cautiously” moderate. 

 

In politics and other activities, 

a moderate is one who oppose views and goals 

unless they are kept within what he considers reasonable bounds 

and are not extreme or excessive.

A radical favors drastic reforms in politics, morals, manners, or whatever. 

 

Each of these words is an adjective as well as a noun: 

thus one may refer to 

“a conservative way of dressing,” 

“a moderate degree of success,” and 

“a radical departure from established customs.”

 

 

Abused, Confused, & Misused Words by Mary Embree:

Conservative = one who favors traditional views and values:

 She dresses in a conservative style.

Not to be confused with:

conservationist = an advocate of the protection of natural resources: 

The conservationist lobbied to save the trees.

conservator  = one who is responsible for a person ruled incompetent:

His son became his conservator.

 

Dictionary.com:

SYNONYM STUDY FOR MODERATE

Moderate, temperate, judicious, reasonable 

all stress the avoidance of excess

emotional, physical, intellectual, or otherwise

Moderate implies response or behavior that is by nature not excessive

a moderate drinker, a moderate amount of assistance. 

Temperate interchangeable with moderate in some general uses, 

usually stresses the idea of caution, control, or self-restraint

a surprisingly temperate response to the angry challenge. 

Judicious emphasizes prudence and the exercise of careful judgment

a judicious balance between freedom and restraint;

judicious care to offend neither side. 

Reasonable suggests the imposition or adoption of limits 

derived from the application of reason or good sense

a reasonable price; 

a reasonable amount of damages allotted to each claimant. 

 

Dictionary.com:

SYNONYM STUDY FOR RADICAL

Radical, extreme, fanatical 

denote that which goes beyond moderation or even to excess in opinion, belief, action, etc. 

Radical emphasizes the idea of going to the root of a matter

and this often seems immoderate in its thoroughness or completeness

radical ideas; radical changes or reforms. 

Extreme applies to excessively biased ideas, intemperate conduct, or repressive legislation: 

to use extreme measures. 

Fanatical is applied to a person who has extravagant views

especially in matters of religion or morality,

which render that person incapable of sound judgments

and excessive zeal which leads him or her 

to take violent action against those who have differing views

fanatical in persecuting others.

 

Dictionary.com:

HISTORICAL USAGE OF RADICAL

Radical comes straight from the Late Latin adjective rādicālis 

“having roots, rooted,” first occurring about a.d. 400 

in Contra Faustum (“Against Faustus the Manichaean”) 

by St. Augustine of Hippo. Rādicālis is 

a derivative of the noun rādix (inflectional stem rādīc- ) 

“root (of a plant, tooth, hair), root (of a family, stock, breed), 

(etymological) root.

” The mathematical sense “denoting the radical sign 

which indicates the root of a number” dates from the late 17th century

Radical in its political sense dates from the late 18th century in England and the first half of the 19th century in the United States.


Latin rādix comes from wrād-, one of the variants of 

the Proto-Indo-European root wrād, werād, wred- “root, branch.” 

From this same variant Latin also has rāmus “branch” 

(the root, so to speak, of English ramify ); 

Greek has rhádix (stem rhádik- ) from the same variant. 

Another variant of the root is the possible source of Greek rhiza, source of English rhizome (Greek variants include Aeolic briza, brisda and Mycenaean wriza ). Wrād- regularly becomes wrōt- in proto-Germanic, the ultimate source of the English word root.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Word History

The Roots of 'Radical'

Getting down to what's under the surface

What to Know

The meaning of radical for many centuries 

was related to its origins radicalis meaning "root."

Thus, until recently, radical referred to the roots of words, 

the roots of illness, or even square roots

Later, radical was used more figuratively to mean "fundamental" 

and examples like "radical reform" referred to changing the very root of the system. 

Now radical is associated with extreme change and deviation from the norm.

When you think of the word radical, what comes to mind

If politics is your thing, it might be an image of a person far 

to your ideological right or left. 

If math is your thing, you might think of square roots

If surfing slang is your thing, it's probably some beach bum saying something like "Radical, dude."

 

Ah, English: yet again, 

using the same word to do so many jobs

Just how did radical come to have so many, uh, radically different uses? And just what is its original use

You will not be surprised to know that we have some answers for you.

The Origin of 'Radical'

The origin of radical isn't at all radical, 

in the "very different from the usual or traditional" sense of the word. 

Radical was first an adjective, borrowed in the 14th century from the Late Latin radicalis, itself from Latin radic-radix, meaning "root." 

And the earliest uses of radical are indeed all about literal roots

hinging on the meaning "of, relating to, or proceeding from a root."

 

None of this will surprise the botanists: 

they know that radical leaves grow from the base of a stem 

or from a rootlike stem, and radical tubers grow from a plant's root. 

 

And linguists know that a verb's radical form is its root form. 

In medicine, radical surgery is surgery that's designed to remove the root of a disease. 

And mathematicians and students of mathematics know that 

the radical sign—√ or √⁻—is used 

when you're finding the square root of a number or formula.

 

Root itself is a familiar element in metaphoric language

—we talk about "the root of the problem," 

"putting roots down," 

"a family's roots"

—and so perhaps radical was destined to develop figurative use too.

Destiny or not, it did, and pretty much immediately: 

the Oxford English Dictionary reports its earliest example of the figurative use from the very same source as the literal one: 

John Trevisa's 1398 English translation of Bartholomaeus Anglicus's 

De proprietatibus rerum, an encyclopedia known in English 

as On the Properties of Things.

 

The Figurative Use of 'Radical'

In its first foray into figurative useradical did what you'd expect: 

it functioned with a meaning of "of or relating to the origin; fundamental." 

This "fundamental" figurative 

meaning of radical was the dominant one for centuries:

 

Radical stepped into the realm of politics first in England in the late 18th century, when one Charles James Fox in 1797 called for "radical reform." 

"Radical reform" was to be fundamental reform, 

reform that made changes to the very root of the system, 

especially by pushing for universal male suffrage. 

The new use of the word caught on and moved across the pond and beyond suffrage:

 

Noun use—supporters of parliamentary reform were known as Radicals—followed. 

As British Radicals worked to extend suffrage even to the working class (wow!), 

and then to organize new voters, the Whig parliamentary faction was being transformed into the Liberal Party (which was supplanted in 1918 by the Labour Party; more here).

The Radicals had the loyalty of the trade unions because they'd gotten the members of the trade unions the right to vote.

 

The Modern Use of 'Radical'

In modern political use radical can be applied to those on either end of the political spectrum, with the following meanings given in this dictionary: 

"associated with political views, practices, and policies of extreme change" and "advocating extreme measures to retain or restore a political state of affairs." 

The first of this pair is obviously descended from Fox's use, and is associated with liberal politics—politics that are about change; the second is associated with conservative politics—politics that are about tradition. 

But the political use gave birth to apolitical non-root-related uses in a short time, albeit at first with nods to the political:

And then at some point—specifically, the 1960s—the surfers showed up. 

The authoritative Green's Dictionary of Slang 

reports the "excellent, cool" use to have originated in surfer jargon 

but to have come from the "basic, essential, from the roots" 

meaning of radical.

 

And there you have it: 

the newest meaning of radical getting back to the word's roots. 

Pretty radical.

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