2022-01-21 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – C - collusion & connivance


Revision C

2022-01-21

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – C - collusion & connivance

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Dictionary.comซ

ออกเสียง collusion = ‘kuh-LOO-zhuhn” 

ออกเสียง connivance or connivence = “kuh-NAHY-vuhna”

 

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expressionsซ

collusion & connivance

Collusion means a secret agreement 

for some tricky, underhanded, or fraudulent purpose

“Drivers acted in collusion with warehousemen to rob the manufacturer.”

Collusion is close in meaning to conspiracy 

and should not be confused with collaboration.

 

Connivance, from a Latin word meaning “to wink at,” 

signifies avoidance of noticing something

assisting wrongdoing by not acting or speaking: 

“The connivance of museum guards circumvented regulations for bidding smoking.” 

When one acts in collusion, he does something; 

when he connivance, he ignores or overlooks something.  

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Trending: ‘collusion

Lookups spiked 1,500% on January 25, 2019

Following the arrest of President Trump's political adviser Roger Stone

the word collusion was used by Stone's lawyer, 

President Trump, 

and many journalists and commentators on the case on January 25, 2019.

 

Stone was arrested as part of the ongoing 

Department of Justice investigation led by Robert Mueller. 

One of the questions being looked into is coordination 

between the Trump campaign and Russia during the 2016 election, 

and charges of conspiracy 

(often referred to as "collusion") are in the news.

 

What does collusion mean?

Collusion means “secret agreementor cooperation 

especially for an illegal or deceitful purpose.”

 

Where does collusion come from?

Like most legal terms, collusion has Latin roots. 

It comes from the Latin verb colludere

formed from com- (“with,” “together”) and ludere (“to play”):

the literal meaning of collusion is “playing together.” 

Its use in English goes back to the 14th century.

 

What is notable about this use of collusion?

The verb collude, based on the same Latin root

as collusion, means "to work together secretly especially in order to do something illegal or dishonest," a synonym of conspire or plot.

It was first used in English in the 1500s, a time when scholars

and lawyers would have been very familiar with the original Latin term.

 

By coincidence, collude is also 

Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day from our Page-A-Day calendar.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Trend Watch

'Indictment' and 'Collusion' Spike from Manafort Charges

Searches for 'indictment' are up 3600%

30 Oct 2017

Lookups for indictment spiked on October 30, 2017 

following the announcement of charges brought by special counsel 

Robert Mueller against Paul Manafort, President Trump’s former campaign chairman, and his associate Rick Gates. 

They are charged with money laundering, tax fraud, and foreign lobbying violations.

Indictment is the legal term meaning 

“the act of officially charging someone with a crime.” 

The verb indict means

“to formally decide that someone should be put on trial for a crime.” 

Indictment also has a more specific meaning, referring to a legal document:

indict (and indictment), like many legal terms in English

comes from Latin through the French spoken in Britain by the Norman conquerors who ruled and set down the laws during the Middle Ages. 

The French word enditer (“to write,” “to compose”) 

became indite in English

and was spelled in various ways that showed similar pronunciation:

During the Renaissance, scholars recognized that the ultimate Latin root for this word was indicere, from dicere which means “to say” 

(think of the English word dictate as a close relative). 

They decided to change the spelling to indict 

to better reflect the classical etymology of the word

but the pronunciation remained unchanged, based on the earlier spellings. 

 

In addition to making indict hard to spell today, 

this caused a split that left the word indite as an English word with some rare and obsolete meanings.

Since one of the underlying questions being investigated 

by the Mueller probe is that of coordination with Russia 

during the 2016 election, 

collusion, meaning “secret agreement or cooperation 

especially for an illegal or deceitful purpose” 

also saw a spike, rising 800% from this story. 

Collusion is another Latin-based legal term, 

from colludere, formed from com- (“with,” “together”) 

and ludere (“to play”): 

the literal meaning of collusion is “playing together.”

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Beautiful and Useless Words, Vol. 3

Are they lovely, are they pointless, or are they both?

Last Updated: 22 Dec 2021

 

Connivance

Definition

corrupt or guilty assent to wrongdoing that involves knowledge of 

and failure to preventor oppose it but no actual participation in it 

 

Degree of Usefulness:
Connivance? More like convoluted. 

That said, useful in very specific instances.

 

Some Trivia:
Connivance and connive both come from the Latin connivēre

which means "to close the eyes.” 

The earliest sense of connive was

“to pretend ignorance of or fail to take action against something one ought to oppose,” 

although the word now most often is used 

to mean “to conspire or intrigue.

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