2022-01-18 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – C – close & cloth & shut


Revision C

2022-01-18

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน - Set – C – close & cloth & shut

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 Dictionary of Problem Words and Expressions

close & shut

These words mean 

“to cause something not to be open,”

“to stop or obstruct.”

Close is somewhat more refined and less blunt than shut.

For instance,

you might tactfully suggest to a child 

that he close his mouth while chewing 

but would sayShutyour mouth” orShut up” 

if you were angry, rude, or annoyed.

 

Signs on public structures are more likely to read 

“This building is closed on Sunday” 

than “This building is shut on Sunday.”

 

Shut, however, derived from an Old English word 

related to bolt and shoot, 

is vigorous and emphatic and should be used 

when you really mean that something should 

be barred, bolted, or blocked.

 

Dictionary.com:

ออกเสียง close = verb klohzadjective, adverb klohs or, noun klohz

ออกเสียง cloth = “KLAWTHor KLOTH

ออกเสียง shut = “SHUHT

 

Dictionary.com:

SYNONYM STUDY FOR CLOSE

Closeshut 

mean to cause something not to be open

Close suggests blocking an opening or vacant place

to close a breach in a wall. 

The word shut refers especially, 

to blocking or barring openings intended for entering and leaving

to shut a door, gate, etc., 

and close can be used in this sense, too: 

to close a door, gate, etc. 

 

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language:

clos′a·bleclose′a·ble (klō′zə-bəl) adj.

close′ly adv.

close′ness n.

clos′ing (klō′zĭng) n.

Synonyms: close, immediate, near, proximate

These adjectives mean 

not far from another in space, time, or relationship

an airport close to town;      

her immediate family; 

his nearest relative; 

the proximate neighborhood. 

 

Abused, Confused, & Misused Words by Mary Embree:

Close = to shut; bring to an end: 

It’s time to close the meeting.

Not to be confused with:

Clothes = wearing apparel; garments: 

Choose the proper clothes for the occasion.

 

Collins COBUILD English Usage:

Close – closed - shut  

1. 'close' or 'shut'

If you close /kləʊz/ something such as a door

you move it so that it covers or fills a hole or gap.

He opened the door and closed it behind him.

You can also say that youshut something such as a door

 

There is no difference in meaning

The past tense and -ed participle ofshut is shut

shut the door quietly.

Both closed and shut can be adjectives used after a linking verb.

All the other downstairs rooms are dark and the shutters are closed.

The windows were all shut.

You can use either close orshut to say that 

work or business stops for a short time in a shop or public building.

Many libraries close on Saturdays at 1 p.m.

What time do the shops shut?

 

2. 'close' or 'closed' only

Only closed can be used in front of a noun. 

You can talk about a closed window, but not a 'shut' window.

He listened to her voice coming faintly through the closed door.

You can say that a road, border, or airport is closed.

The border was closed without notice around midnight.

Don't say that a road, border, or airport 'is shut'.

Be Careful!
Don't confuse the verb close with the adjective close /kləʊs/. 

If something is close to something else, it is near to it.

See near - close

 

Collins COBUILD English Usage:

Near  & close

1. talking about short distances

If something isnear, near to, or close to a place or thing

it is a short distance from it

When close has this meaning, it is pronounced /kləʊs/.

I live in Reinfeld, which is near Lübeck.

I stood very near to them.

They owned a cottage close to the sea.

When near and close have this meaning, 

don't use them immediately in front of a noun

Instead use nearby.

He was taken to a nearby hospital.

He threw the bag into some nearby bushes.

However, the superlative form nearest can be used immediately in front of a noun.

They hurried to the nearest exit.

 

2. meaning 'almost'

You can use nearimmediately in front of a noun 

to say that something is almost a particular thing.

The country is in a state of near chaos.

We drove to the station in near silence.

You can also use near immediately in front of an adjective and a noun 

to say that something almost has a particular quality.

It was a near fatal accident.

The Government faces a near impossible dilemma.

You can use near, near toor close to 

immediately in front of noun 

to say that someone or something is almost in a particular state.

Her father was angry, her mother near tears.

When she saw him again, he was near to death.

She was close to tears.

 

3. talking about friends and relatives

You can refer to someone you know well as a 'close friend'.

His father was a close friend of Peter Thorneycroft.

Don't refer to someone as a 'near friend'.

You can refer to someone who is 

directly related to you as a 'close relative'.

She had no very close relatives.

You can also refer to someone as a ‘near relative', 

but this is less common.

Be Careful!
Don't confuse the adjective 'close' with the verb close /kləʊz/. 

If you close something, you move it so that it fills a hole or gap.

 

Collins COBUILD English Usage: 

Clothes  & clothing & cloth

1. 'clothes'

Clothes /kləʊðz/ are things you wear

such as shirts, trousers, dresses, and coats.

I took off all my clothes.

Be Careful!
There is no singular form of clothes. 

In formal English, you can talk about 

garment, a piece of clothing, or an article of clothing

but in ordinary conversation

you usually name the piece of clothing you are talking about.

 

2. 'clothing'

Clothing /'kləʊðɪŋ/ is the clothes people wear

You often use clothing to talk about particular types of clothes

for example winter clothing or warm clothing

Clothing is an uncountable noun

Don't talk about 'clothings' or 'clothing'.

Wear protective clothing.

Some locals offered food and clothing to the refugees.

 

3. 'cloth'

Cloth /klɒθ/ is fabric such as wool or cotton 

that is used for making such things as clothes.

I cut up strips of cotton cloth.

The women wove cloth for a living.

When cloth is used like this, it is an uncountable noun.

cloth is a piece of fabric used for cleaning or dusting

The plural form of cloth is cloths, not 'clothes'.

Clean with a soft cloth dipped in warm soapy water.

Don't leave damp cloths in a cupboard.

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Choose the Right Synonym for close

Verb

Close, End, Conclude, Finish, Complete, Terminate

mean to bring or come to a stopping point or limit

Close usually implies that 

something has been in some way open as well as unfinished.  

close a debate

End conveys a strong sense of finality.  

ended his life

Conclude may imply a formal closing (as of a meeting).  

the service concluded with a blessing

Finish may stress completion of a final step in a process.  

after it is painted, the house will be finished 

Complete implies the removal of all deficiencies 

or a successful finishing of what has been undertaken.  

the resolving of this last issue completes the agreement

Terminate implies the setting of a limit in time or space.  

your employment terminates after three months 

 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Adjective

Stingy, Close, Niggardly, Parsimonious, Penurious, Miserly 

mean being unwilling or showing unwillingness to share with others.

Stingy implies a marked lack of generosity.  

a stingy child, not given to sharing

Close suggestskeeping a tight grip on one's money and possessions.  

folks who are very close when charity calls

Niggardly impliesgiving or spending the very smallest amount possible.  

the niggardly amount budgeted for the town library

Parsimonious suggests a frugality so extreme as to lead to stinginess.  

a parsimonious lifestyle notably lacking in luxuries

Penurious implies niggardliness that gives an appearance of actual poverty.  

the penurious eccentric bequeathed a fortune

Miserly suggests a sordid avariciousness and a morbid pleasure in hoarding.  

a miserly couple devoid of social conscience 

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