2020-10-16 ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด I – Impeach

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2020-10-16 

ศัพท์ น่าสับสน ชุด I – Impeach

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Dictionary.com

ออกเสียง Impeach = ‘im-PEECH’

Dictionary of Problem Words and Expression

Impeach

This word means “to accuse” (especially an official),

“to bring charges against,”

“to change the credibility of someone,”

“to call to account.”

Impeach comes from a Latin term meaning “to trap,”

and contrary to widespread opinion,

does not mean “to convict,” “to find guilty.”

President Andrew Johnson was Impeached;

that is, charges were brought by the House of Representatives,

but he was not convicted (found guilty) by the Senate.

To Impeach is to indict, not toconvict.

Impeachment is followed by a trial to determine guilt or innocence

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language

im·peach ′a·bil ′i·ty n.

im·peach ′er n.

im·peach ′ment n.

Usage Note:

When an irate citizen demands that a disfavored public official be impeached, the citizen clearly intends for the official to be removed from office.

This popular use of impeach as a synonym of "throw out"

(even if by due process) does not accord with the legal meaning of the word.

When a public official is impeached, that is, formally accused of wrongdoing, this is only the start of what can be a lengthy process that may or may not lead to the official's removal from office.

In strict usage, an official is impeached (accused), tried, and then convicted or acquitted. The vaguer use of impeach reflects disgruntled citizens' indifference to whether the official is forced from office by legal means or chooses to resign to avoid further disgrace.

Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary,

im•peach′er, n.

usage:

The correct legal sense of impeach refers only to the bringing of formal charges against an official.

Since the purpose of impeachment is the removal from office of an official who has engaged in misconduct, many people focus on the intended result and use

impeach to mean “to remove (a public official) from office.”

This sense is likely to cause confusion, and people should be aware of the word's proper legal meaning.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Frequently Asked Questions About impeach

Are presidents removed from office when they are impeached?

Not necessarily. In the United States a president is impeached by the members of the House of Representatives.

Once this body has drawn up charges and had them approved by a majority of House members, the Senate holds a trial.

If a two-thirds majority of the Senate votes to convict then the president may be removed from office.

Which presidents were impeached?

Three Presidents of the United States have been impeached: Andrew Johnson, Bill Clinton, and Donald Trump.

Can people other than the President be impeached?

Impeachment procedures vary from country to country, but the United States Constitution states that "The President, Vice President and all Civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."

A wide range of officials (including judges, presidents, and senators) have been impeached in the U.S.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

2019 Word of the Year - Runner-up - Impeach

As we looked back on the quickly receding year of 2019, the runner-up that stood out among all the others was clear to our editors: impeach.

The word had its biggest spike in lookups after we'd announced our words for the year, when the U.S. House of Representatives approved two articles of impeachment against President Donald Trump on December 18th. That largest spike followed what had already been a 129% increase in lookups over the previous year.

Impeach is defined in several ways, including “to charge with a crime or misdemeanor” and “to cast doubt on.” The former of these carries the additional specific meaning of “to charge (a public official) before a competent tribunal with misconduct in office”; the latter is often narrowed as well, with the meaning “to challenge the credibility or validity of.”

Although frequently thought of as meaning "to remove from office,"

impeach has a precise legal use in cases

such as this, in which the action describes a step in removing an official from office, but does not refer to the removal itself.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Impeach (word of the year 2019)

It’s no surprise that impeach is among the top words of 2019, with the largest single spike following House Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s announcement of an impeachment inquiry on September 24th. Overall, the word had a 129% increase in lookups over last year.

Impeach is defined in several ways, including “to charge with a crime or misdemeanor” and “to cast doubt on.” The former of these carries the additional specific meaning of “to charge (a public official) before a competent tribunal with misconduct in office”; the latter is often narrowed as well, with the meaning “to challenge the credibility or validity of.”

Although frequently thought of as meaning "to remove from office," impeach has a precise legal use in cases such as this, in which the action describes a step in removing an official from office, but does not refer to the removal itself.

Impeach came to English from the French word empecher ("to impede"), itself from the Latin word impedicare ("to fetter")—which is also the root of the English word impede.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

'Impeach'

There were a number of other words spiking in lookups last week due to the impeachment investigation into (and subsequent impeachment of) President Trump. Unsurprisingly, impeach was among these.

The House of Representatives on Wednesday impeached President Trump for abuse of power and obstruction of Congress, making him the third president in history to be charged with committing high crimes and misdemeanors and face removal by the Senate.
— Nicholas Fandos and Michael D. Shear, The New York Times, 18 Dec. 2019

There are a number of possible meanings to the word impeach, which has been in use in English since the middle of the 16th century.

The citation above, which obviously distinguishes

between being impeached and being removed from office,

nicely illustrates the sense of the word that is most relevant of late: “to charge with a crime or misdemeanor;

specifically, to charge (a public official) before a competent tribunal with misconduct in office.”

While impeach has been used over the centuries to refer to removing a person from office, that sense is inapplicable to the U. S. government.

Presidents (and other officials) must be tried and convicted subsequent to being impeached before removal can occur.

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