Opioid naive with mod-sev pain -> giving Morphine 2- 5 mg IV
Re-evaluate 15 min ( - this is the peak effect, however, pt should show some relieve at 5 min after prescribeed)
Escalating dose if not feel better
mild to mod : 25-50%
severe : 50-100 %
Percentage reduce for elder /poor renal or liver function.
eg. 5 mg IV --> pt still show crying, highly pain : 5+5 = 10
" Sponge concept -- pain like a sponge, as large it is, as wide margine of safty from opioid use." (prof.Pantilat)